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HA^D-BOOK 



STATE OF GEORGIA 



ACCOMPANIED BY A 



GEOLOGICAL MAP OF THE STATE. 



PREPARED UNDER THB DIRECTION OP 



THOMAS P. JANES, A.M., MJX, 

Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of Georgia. 



ATLANTA, GA. 

1876. 



As 






Agrii. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, 

BY THOMAS P. JANES, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 






RUSSELL BROTHERS, 17 to 23 Rose St., New York City. 



STATE OF GEOEGIA, } 

Department of Agriculture. V 

ATLANTA, Nov. 26, 1876. J 

THE law creating this Department (see page 211) requires the Com 
missioner to prepare, under his direction, a Hand-Book of the State, 
and specifies that it shall contain a description of the geological 
formation of the various Counties of the State, the general adapta 
tion of the Soil for the various productions of the Temperate Zone, 
and for the purpose of giving a more general and careful estimate of 
the capacity and character of the soil of the Counties, with a correct 
analysis of the same. 

These special features, thus required, in addition to the usual con 
tents of a Hand-Book, can not be fully furnished until the State 
Geologist shall have completed his survey. 

The outline of the geological and physical features of the State, 
with a description of the principal Rocks and the Soils derived from 
them, a description and analysis of some of the Marls, the Eleva 
tions, Water-powers, and a partial account of the Natural Produc 
tions of the State, both mineral and vegetable, are furnished by Dr. 
George Little, State Geologist, in charge of the Geological Survey 
now in progress. 

In the preparation of this Hand-Book, two objects have been kept 
constantly in view: 

1. To supply the people of Georgia with correct information of 
their own State, its condition, resources, and institutions. 

2. To supply Immigrants, actual and prospective, with accurate 
and reliable information on those subjects connected with Georgia 
in which it is believed they will feel a special interest. 

The facts in regard to the various Institutions of the State have 
been furnished mainly by their officers or representatives. It has 
been necessary to omit much interesting and valuable information, 
on account of the numerous subjects to be presented, and to prevent 
swelling the volume to too great a size. 

THOMAS P. JANES, 

Commissioner of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS. 



Introductory. 

SETTLEMENT AND AGE OF GEORGIA 1 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE SITUATION AND CONDITION OF THE 

STATE 3 

EFFECTS OF THE LATE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES 7 

VIEW OF THE FUTURE 8 

IMMIGRATION 9 

WANTS OF MAN AND THE MEANS OF THEIR SUPPLY IN 

GEORGIA 10 

SUGGESTIONS TO IMMIGRANTS 15 

I. The Country. 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP THE STATE 17 

1. OUTLINES OF PHYSICAL FEATURES 17 

2. GEOLOGY 18 

a, Elements, Minerals, and Rocks. . . 26 

b, Geological Formations and those occurring in Georgia 37 

c, Special Geology of Counties 42 

3. ELEVATIONS 59 

4. WATER-POWERS 68 

5. MARLS 87 

6. SOILS 105 

7. WOODS 110 

EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RELATIONS OF GEORGIA 114 

SITUATION PHYSICAL 114 

COMMERCIAL SITUATION BEST SITE ON THE CONTINENT. 115 

TRANSPORTATION LINES IN GEORGIA 119 

BOUNDARIES OF THE STATE 120 

AREA OF GEORGIA 122 

TOPOGRAPHY 122 

The Appalachian Chain 124 

Great Ridges 125 

River Systems and River Basins 126 

Great Natural Divisions of Georgia 127 

The Mountain or Up-Country 127 

Scenery 128 

CLIMATE , 129 

Mistakes as to the Climate of Georgia 131 

Distribution of Heat 132 

Temperature Tables 133 

Rainfall 137 

Tables of Rainfall 138 

Value of Weather Records 143 

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF GEORGIA.. In pocket at end of this volume. 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

II. The People, 

RACE CHARACTERISTICS 144 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEOPLE OF GEORGIA. ... 146 

THE NEGRO 148 

POPULATION 153 

CAPACITY OF GEORGIA FOR POPULATION 153 

INSTITUTIONS OF THE PEOPLE 154 

GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE PRESENT CONSTITUTION. . . 154 

Suffrage 154 

Bill of Rights and Limitations 154 

Taxation 154 

Legislative Department 154 

Executive Department 155 

Judicial Department 155 

Homestead and Exemption. . k 155 

Wife s Estate 156 

Divorce 156 

Education 156 

LAWS OF PRESENT GENERAL INTEREST 156 

Wills Distribution of Estates 15G 

Collection of Debts 157 

Liens 158 

Taxes 158 

Record of Conveyances 158 

Arbitration 158 

THE LAND POLICY OF GEORGIA 158 

Head Rights 159 

Treaties with the Indians 159 

Land Lotteries 160 

BANKS 105 

RAILROADS AND CANALS OF GEORGIA 165 

Western and Atlantic Railroad 166 

Georgia Railroad. .. 169 

Central Railroad 171 

Atlanta and West Point Railroad 172 

Macon and Western Railroad 173 

Southwestern Railroad 173 

Macon and Augusta Railroad 173 

Atlantic and Gulf Railroad 173 

Macon and Brunswick Railroad 174 

Brunswick and Albany Railroad 174 

Cherokee Railroad 175 

North and South Railroad 175 

Northeastern Railroad 176 

Atlanta and Richmond Air Line Railroad. 176 

Selma, Rome, and Dalton Railroad 176 

Rome Railroad 176 

Elberton Air Line Railroad 177 

Augusta Canal 1 77 

Savannah and Ogeechee Canal 178 

PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM OF GEORGIA. . .179 



CONTENTS. Vll 



UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES 182 

University of Georgia 182 

Mercer University 180 

Emory College 187 

Pio Nono College 187 

Atlanta University 187 

Wesleyan Female College 188 

Southern Masonic Female College 189 

BENEVOLENT AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS 191 

Georgia Academy for the Blind 191 

Deaf and Dumb Academy 192 

Lunatic Asylum 193 

Georgia Baptist Orphans Home 194 

Methodist Orphans Home North Ga. Conf 194 

Methodist Orphans Home South Ga. Conf 195 

Masonic Fraternity 195 

Odd Fellows 19G 

Good Templars 196 

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 197 

Baptist Church 197 

Methodist Church South 198 

Methodist Church North .- 200 

Other Methodist Churches 200 

Presbyterian Church 200 

Protestant Episcopal Church 202 

Christian Church 203 

Catholic Church 203 

Lutheran Church 205 

Other Christian Churches 205 

Israelites 205 

GEORGIA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 200 

STATE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE 209 

STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 214 

STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 216 

NEWSPAPERS IN GEORGIA. . . 217 



III. The Productions 

AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS 219 

STOCK 220 

POULTRY 220 

FOREST PRODUCTS 221 

GRASSES 221 

AREAS OP STAPLE CROPS 221 

FRUITS 223 

RESULTS SHOWING THE CAPACITY OF GEORGIA SOIL UNDER 

IMPROVED CULTURE 225 

STOCK-RAISING IN GEORGIA 229 

MANUFACTURING IN GEORGIA 233 

FERTILIZATION AND FERTILIZERS 230 

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF GEORGIA . .In pocket at end of this volume. 



IKTKODTJCTOKY. 



AGE OF THE STATE AND ITS SETTLEMENT. 

THE American Union is the fourth in rank of the great lnd- 
owners of the globe, covering a territory of 3,600,000 square 
miles nearly equal to the whole of Europe. It is composed 
of 48 political divisions, quite unequal in size and population, 
of which 38 are States, with an average population of 1,200,- 
000 souls, and an average area of 52,000 square miles a little 
larger than England proper. 

This large territory was gradually acquired. The Union 
began in 1776, with an area of 827,844 square miles, of which 
420,892 were in the States, and 406,952 without them. The 
French cession of Louisiana in 1803 more than doubled the 
territory by adding 1,117,931 square miles, at a cost of $23,- 
500,000. In 1819, Florida was acquired from Spain; Texas 
was annexed in 1845 ; California and New Mexico in 1848; 
the Gadsden purchase from Mexico in 1852; and, finally, Alaska 
in 1867. The unoccupied portions of the original States were 
gradually ceded to the Union by the States. 

The acquisition of territory was gradual, and the process of 
peopling it was slower. Of the centuries (not yet four) since 
the discovery of America, more than one full century had 
elapsed before the first permanent settlement in the United 
States was made that of Virginia in the year 1607 115 years 
after Columbus crossed the ocean. Before the colonization of 
South Carolina in 1670, the first settlers of Virginia had grown 
gray, and a like interval after this elapsed before the settle- 



2 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

ment of Georgia in 1732. The first infant bora in Charleston 
hud reached the age of threescore before Oglethorpe landed 
at Savannah and founded Georgia the youngest Colony of 
the original thirteen. Virginia, then at the age of 127, was 
almost as old as Georgia is now, at the age of 144. So gra 
dual is the conquest of space. 

Tempting as the New World seemed in so many ways, 
centuries had not sufficed to people it. The United States, 
with all her vast area and unexampled growth, had not 
attained in 1860 a population equal to that of Japan, with an 
area about equal to half of Texas. In 1870, with 11 souls to 
the square mile, it was less densely peopled by half than the 
average land surface of the globe, including deserts and all 
uninhabitable places the latter average being 27 souls. Dis 
tance, poverty, the ocean, the forest, the Indian all stood 
between the European and the New World ; even when he 
reached it and made good his footing, disease, hunger, and 
hardship were for a long time his attendants. Stringent 
motives were necessary to induce men to encounter the hard 
ships of pioneer life. Among these motives, Religion, Poverty, 
and Crime had the leading shares. 

An adventurous disposition added its quota to the people of 
the colonies ; but a sturdy and vigorous character was evinced 
by the choice of such a life ; and among the numerous perils 
which cut off the new colonies, " the survival of the fittest " 
was constantly illustrated. 

In the settlement of Georgia, there were two leading aims : 
1. The new Colony was intended largely as a sort of buffer to 
South Carolina, to keep off the hostile Indian tribes ; 2. To 
furnish a refuge to the poor people of Great Britain especially, 
though not excluding Europe generally. 

Her beginnings were humble. Like John Bunyan, she was 
of an inconsiderable generation. The first colonists proved a 
failure, and better material was found in the immigration of 
the Salzburgers, the Moravians, and Scotch Highlanders. 

Yet the character of the early colonists is more a matter of 
interest historically than by reason of any permanent influence 
they exerted on the future of the State. By far the largest and 
most influential element came from the other and older colo 
nies Virginia and the Carolinas. The moulding influence 



THE SITUATION AND CONDITION OF GEORGIA. 3 

which formed the present Georgia was derived from this 
internal immigration. 

Georgia is usually referred to as the youngest of the original 
thirteen. The word youngest seems to be associated with her 
age ; but she is fairly to be classed among the older States of 
the Union. Compare 1676, 1776, 1876. In 1676, all the 
original colonies except Georgia were fairly under way. In 
1776, Georgia was 44 years old, and no new State was admitted 
till 1791, after the Revolutionary War. There are 25 States 
younger than Georgia, and but half that number older. The 
late war, however, has practically made of the whole South 
new States. 

The settlement of the State was a work of time, pa 
tience, and hardship. Not until a century after the first 
colonization, was the final acquisition of her territory from 
the Indians effected the Cherokee Country, one of the finest 
and most populous portions of the State. 

Before entering upon details, we will give a summary of the 
present condition of Georgia. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE SITUATION AND CONDITION OF THE STATE. 

Georgia is admirably situated, with a fine ocean front on 
the South Atlantic coast Savannah and Brunswick furnishing 
its chief ports for external commerce. It has several rivers 
emptying into the ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, which furnish 
considerable (yet not the best) facilities for inland navigation. 
The State in all sections is well wooded and watered. The 
climate is fine for production, health, and comfort. There is 
of soil, a great diversity, from very poor to very rich, and a 
remarkable range of agricultural production, embracing both 
provision and money crops, including among them Cotton, 
Rice, and Sugar, with all the cereals and grasses, and an 
immense variety of fruits and vegetables. 

The territorial dimensions of the State are ample the area 
exceeding 58,000 square miles, with an average length of 300 
and breadth of 200 miles. The population, however, is rather 
sparse, being about the average of that of the organized States 
of the Union say 22 per square mile. In 1870, the number 



4 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

of inhabitants was 1,184,109, of whom 638,926 were whites 
and 545,183 blacks. 

The State is divided by nature into three great divisions 
Upper, Middle, and Lower Georgia terms in this case equally 
applicable to latitude and altitude the altitude rising w r ith 
the latitude. 

The wealth of Georgia in 1860 was relatively large the 
aggregate being $645,895,237 nearly $1,100 to each white 
inhabitant. In 1870, five years after the war, the aggregate 
was reduced to $268,169,207, being $420 to each white, or $268 
to each inhabitant. The State debt until recently was far 
less than the value of the public property of the State, and 
probably does not now exceed it. 

About 2,400 miles of railway are in operation, being one 
mile to every 28 square miles of territory, and one mile to 
every 500 inhabitants. 

There is a newly organized system of public schools. The 
State University was founded in 1801. It is well patronized, 
and has a fair endowment. There are several denominational 
and other colleges, male and female. 

The Capital of the State is Atlanta, a rapidly growing city 
of about 35,000 inhabitants. The civil divisions are: 137 Coun 
ties, 44 State Senatorial Districts, 9 Congressional Districts, 
and 20 Judicial Circuits. 

Before the war, Georgia was generally regarded one of the 
most prosperous States of the Union ; and since its close has 
been one of the most rapid of the Southern States in recupera 
tion, and has ever enjoyed a high reputation for independence, 
vigor, and enterprise. Such is a very brief, general outline of 
the State. 

A huge and complex thing is a State ! In this one compre 
hensive word, what an aggregate is involved of objects natural 
and social of land and water, forest and plain, cultivated 
fields and waste places, climate and soil ; and of yet greater 
things people and their ways, constitutions and institutions, 
laws and customs all expressed in one short syllable ! To 
obtain information concerning it requires considerable ma 
chinery to collect and arrange the facts of its condition. 
They are gathered from afar and brought together by means 
of statistics, which has lately grown up into a science. 



RANGE OF PRODUCTIONS. 5 

Formerly it was employed almost entirely for taxation, repre 
sentation, and war ; now for public information and guidance, 
to provide material for statesmanship and wise administration, 
and for individual conduct and popular improvement. 

Only gradually have men worked into the idea that a State 
is a species of organism, of which the very units men are, 
themselves, the most complex of organisms ; and the relations 
of the units also, numerous and complex. Properly to repre 
sent the whole of the information is to combine the results of 
the laborers in each department the historian, geographer, 
naturalist, statistician, etc. To do this well requires order 
and co-ordination, and an interlacing of dependent parts, to 
enable readers to grasp the whole, by grouping condensed and 
related statements in brief ; for one may know many facts, 
and yet have a confused idea of the whole. 

The present work is intended to embrace three main topics 
of discussion, or general subjects to be treated : 1. The 
Country ; 2. The People ; 3. The Productions. These natur 
ally and obviously cover the case. The Country all things 
natural ; the People all things social ; the Productions 
the use of the country by the people. 

The most important and practical subject for consideration 
is the actual development of Georgia, individual and social 
that of the social units and the social aggregate a correct 
view of our actual stage of progress. 

In no respect are Georgia s advantages more conspicuous 
than in the admirable fitness of many portions of the State 
for ample home comfort. 

The range of agricultural productions is remarkable for the 
following reasons : We reach nearly to the tropics. Our 
greatest length is from south to north, and the altitude 
increases with the latitude, thus supplying all the conditions 
of variety. From the semi-tropical products at the South, we 
pass above the cotton-belt in the mountain region. At the 
South, Rice Cane and Cotton are field crops, and the Orange 
and Banana are just reached, among tropical fruits. As we 
go higher, Cotton is the leading money crop, and we reach the 
favorite region of the Peach in all its lusciousness. The Pear 
can be grown everywhere, even to the southern limit, in its 
greatest perfection. At the Pomological Fair in Boston, it 



6 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

was a Georgia Pear which took the highest premium, compet 
ing with those from California and the whole country. With 
proper judgment and skill, a Georgia farmer should be one of 
the best off in the Union for wealth and comfort, having 
abundant supplies and money crops also. The Cereals 
especially of Wheat and Indian Corn as shown by chemical 
analysis, cannot be surpassed in nutritive value. Of vege 
tables, the variety is almost unbounded, including all those 
named in the Gardens Calendars the Sweet-potato, Green 
Corn, and Okra of a superior sort, added. We have Figs, 
Pomegranates, Grapes, Muscadines, Apricots, Melons, Quinces 
and Plums. Apples flourish in all parts of the State except 
near the coast. All the fruits are of superior flavor. Wild 
fruits, including Strawberries, Blackberries, Grapes, and Nuts, 
are abundant. Nowhere does a greater variety repay the 
pains of the husbandman. 

The mineral wealth of the State is large. Unsurpassed man 
ufacturing facilities water-power, coal, iron, cotton all 
together. This interest is beginning rapidly to develop. 

Another remarkable and unappreciated fact is found in the 
splendid commercial situation of Georgia. Naturally, and 
upon a normal development and growth of commerce, she has 
the finest commercial situation on the continent. 

There are geographical and topographical considerations 
establishing this fact, which we will hereafter consider. A 
great commercial future may yet be hers, for it is not too late 
for the needful improvement. 

Finally, there are here the most splendid opportunities for 
diversification of labor the needed condition of material 
prosperity. 

All the great industries can be fully represented : Agri 
culture, in its best phases, for profit and comfort; Manufactur 
ing and Mining under the most favorable conditions ; and 
Commerce, including not only her own exchanges, but a 
remarkable proportion of those of other sections of the 
country. These industries developed will give rise to profes 
sional employment also thus covering the entire range of the 
industries of a prosperous people. 



LOSSES OF GEORGIA BY THE WAR. 



EFFECTS OF THE LATE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES. 

The prodigious retarding effect of the war is to be observed 
as one of the great elements which it will require time to over 
come. We went foot. We are now spelling up slowly. 
Population and wealth were both set back, and the relations 
of all business undermined and revolutionized. One has well 
remarked that we lost our very business habits, besides our 
occupation. 

The wealth of Georgia In 1870 was returned as 20 per cent 
less than in 1850 20 years before. In 1850, she was the 6th 
State in the Union in wealth, the 9th in population, and the 
13th in white population. In 1870, she was the 20th in wealth. 
No study of any Southern State can be thorough which fails 
to recognize and examine this huge factor which divides the 
Old and New South. 

The changes produced in Georgia by the war were as 
follows : 

Population in 1850., 906,185. 

" 1860, 1,136,692 increase, 230,507, or 25.43 per cent. 
" 1870, 1,184,109 " 47,417, " 4 " 

At the former rate, the increase in 1870 would have been 
288,720, instead of 47,417, making a loss of 241,303, by virtue 
of the 4 years war, or 60,326 per annum, of persons actually 
lost by the war and the increase of population prevented the 
former being the most active and valuable men of the com 
munity, conducting its main business. This throws some light 
on the losses by the war. 

The pecuniary losses were as follows. The wealth of 
Georgia was : 

In 1850, $335,426,000. 

" 1860, 645,895,000 increase, $310,469,000, or 90 per cent. 

" 1870, 268,169,000 decrease, 377,726,000, " 58.5 v < " 

At the former rate, the increase would have been 90 per cent 
$581,305,000, making the wealth of 1870, $1,227,200,000; 
real wealth, $268,169,000 ; loss, $959,031,000. The loss was 
more than three times as great as the property left ; and the 
estimate, at that, in greenbacks, not in gold. 



8 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The decennial tendency, moreover, was decidedly upward 
every successive decade ; so that the probable increase from 
1860 to 1870, aside from the war, would have exceeded the 
foregoing ratio, and did exceed it at the North, in spite of the 
war. 

The losses by the war have been equivalent to about 7 
years loss of increase in population, and 25 years loss of wealth, 
besides the loss of business habits and the disorganization of 
industry. 

The effect of all this is to make the Southern States gene 
rally Georgia included new States, now in their infancy, 
and have a new development. 

This carries us forward into a general 

VIEW OF THE FUTURE. 

Set back 25 years in the race, we must look forward to a 
correspondingly long period for a new development remem 
bering, too, that the relative progress of other States will 
have been going on in geometrical progression. 

But notwithstanding these discouraging circumstances, the 
future of the State, if no untoward event again occurs to check 
our natural progress, is full of hope. The progress already made 
by ourselves, with our own means, gives unmistakable assurance 
that we w T ill, at no distant day, become opulent as a people and 
have a grand development of our State. Georgia will come 
to be known, not merely as an Agricultural, but as a Manu 
facturing State. Manufacturing Capital will come to the Cotton- 
fields, and with it will come denser population, greater general 
wealth, and higher organization. Her Mining resources will 
be developed Gold, Coal, Iron, Lime, etc., etc. also her 
immense natural advantages of commercial situation. Middle 
and Upper Georgia will be sought for the climate as well as 
for other advantages, and will have a largely increased white 
population. 

Georgia has the greatest diversity of resources and powers 
of adaptation, and is recognized as tne Empire State of the 
South. Her career is in the future. Her great hope is in her 
own people. Mr. John C. Reed, in his book, The Old and 
the New South, says : " The best inheritance of the New 



CHARACTER OF THE PEOPLE IMMIGRATION. 9 

from the Old South is the Southern people. . . . There is a 
great residuum of progressive energy, of intellectual strength, 
and moral worth in the people of the Southern States. They 
need not fear a comparison . . . with the most enlightened 
communities. Great men . . . such as the South have given 
birth to, in unbroken succession, are the unmistakable signs 
of a great people. . . . The rank and file of the Confederate 
armies have given proof that the men of the South must be 
classed, in all the elements of complete character, with the 
best that the world has ever seen. . . . Crime (before the 
war) was so infrequent that a single morning of the term of 
a rural court, nearly always sufficed to dispose of every indict 
ment ; there was little want or pauperism ; virtue was every 
where the rule in private life, and there was seldom even the 
suspicion of corruption in government or the administration 
of justice. The history of this people since the Avar shows 
that they are possessed of the best Anglo-Saxon mettle." 

It is the character of a people which constitutes a State, 
and in this we have abiding confidence. Not crushed by loss, 
Georgians are still full of pluck and energy, and think not of 
succumbing, but only of how to meet the new exigencies. 
Their resources are great in versatility and power of accommo 
dation, and a proper use of their natural advantages will make 

them a noteworthy people. 

*-> 

IMMIGRATION. 

Georgia presents to immigrants a splendid combination of 
advantages, natural and social. Many of them are common 
to the Southern States and some to the Cotton States only ; 
while others are peculiar to Georgia. So numerous and 
substantial are these advantages and inducements, as only to 
stand in need of appreciation to lead to large immigration. 
They will bear, too, the most attentive study. Few countries 
can bear so systematic a treatment and so rigorous an appeal 
to first principles, by a direct comparison, instituted and 
carried out between 



10 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



THE WANTS OF MAN AND THE MEANS OF SUPPLY. 

Take all human wants, thoughtfully considered, and compare 
x hem seriatim with the provisions here made for their supply. 

Bastiat, the French philosopher, sums up the wants of man 
substantially as follows, beginning with the simplest and 
advancing to the more complex and artificial : Air, Food, 
Clothing, Lodging, Health, Locomotion, Sense of Security, 
Instruction, Diversion, Sense of the Beautiful. Some of these 
wants are gratified by nature, some by society, and some by 
the combined action of both. Accepting this summary, com 
pare, in Georgia, the supply provided : 

1. Air. Let the air be regarded in a wider sense as the 
synonym of climate. It is balmy, delicious, and wholesome. 
It has been said that no finer climate than that of Middle 
Georgia is enjoyed by any English-speaking people and they 
hold one fourth of the habitable globe, scattered over every 
quarter. Take it year in and year out, it is only surpassed in 
comfort by some of the " table-land " regions, which, by way 
of compensation, lack variety. There is, especially in the 
Southern autumnal season and the Indian Summer, an inde 
scribable charm, a sense of delicious repose, which makes 
existence itself an enjoyment. Of many a day, it may be said, 
" This is a gem a perfect chrysolite !" With its balmy breath 
and its absolute freedom from every sense of oppression or 
exaction, it suits one, even as Sancho Panza said of sleep : it 
fits him all over like a garment. 

2. Food. Xowhere can be grown a greater variety of 
wholesome and delicious food. The range of food crops for 
man and beast is unsurpassed. The cereals in their perfection, 
show both to the taste and to chemical analysis a superior 
composition, quality, and flavor ; " Corn bread," Xorth and 
South, is not the same thing ; Sugar-cane, Rice, and Field 
Peas and" vegetables of the most varied sort ; the Sweet- 
Potato through the entire winter and summer enough of 
itself to tempt an epicure substantial and delicious. At a 
county fair held in November, a gentleman well known to the 
country sent from his garden for exhibition 24 varieties of 
vegetables ; and this entirely without special preparation. 
Fruits of the finest flavor, and in abundance. And such 



WANTS OF MAN AND THEIK SUPPLY. 11 

Peaches ! and, what is not generally supposed, such Pears ! 
Apples, Plums domestic and wild; Strawberries ; Raspberries 
the flavor of Peaches and Strawberries surpassingly fine. The 
Figs, after all, regarded by many as the finest fruit we have, 
abundant, perfectly wholesome, and covering a long season. 
The Scuppernong Grape is a like resource. 

For animal food, aside from game and fish, there is no 
country better adapted to the cheap production of the best 
meats. Beef perhaps not quite so cheaply raised at present 
as in the blue-grass region may still be had in abundance. 
So with Mutton, Pork, and Poultry. A large part of the 
time the animals producing these, can, to a great extent, " find 
themselves." With our brief winters and light snow, the 
stock on a farm is largely self-supporting, and no one need 
want for meat, or for having it fresh the year round. No 
where can Poultry be raised better or cheaper, and our dairy 
facilities, though poorly utilized, are unsurpassed. 

In a word, for food-raising we are admirably situated ; nor 
do we ourselves half appreciate our advantages for abundance 
and variety of choice food. 

3. Clothing. The South is the home of Cotton the choicest 
of clothing material. It may be equally so of Wool. It is 
capable of Flax and Silk ; and has the best natural facilities 
for manufacturing all these after their production. In this 
respect, Georgia is unsurpassed. 

4. Lodging. There is abundant material, well diffused, for 
housebuilding, of whatever sort, from the humble and quickly 
reared cabin to the stateliest mansion. Wood, Brick, Stone, 
Marble, Slate material for sills, and plank and shingles the 
pine and cypress abundant. Material for all furniture, for 
comfort and luxury, abounds. 

5. Health. No greater errors abound abroad than on this 
subject. Life Insurance Companies have discriminated against 
some of the healthiest regions of the globe. The character of 
sickness at the North and South differs ; but the general 
health at the South and the rates of mortality will compare 
favorably with that of the North. 

The conditions of health are perhaps more manageable. 
Certain low or swampy tracts at the South have given a false 
impression as to the general and pervading salubrity of the 



12 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

climate. These places are well known and avoidable ; while 
at the North an all-pervading tendency say to consumption 
cannot be easily escaped. From this disease, the health 
maps in the Census Atlas show that we have an unusual 
exemption, especially in lower Georgia, This is also true of 
the mountain region. In Rabun County, a death from con 
sumption has never been known to occur. The softness of our 
winters is greatly promotive of longevity. 

6. Locomotion. The impediments to this are greatest in a 
cold country winter-locked, ice-bound ; or in a tropical 
country having an excess of heat and rain. In our moderate 
and delightful climate, comfortable indoors or out, little 
restraint arises either from heat or cold, snow or ice, or any 
natural cause. In summer and winter, spring and autumn, 
ground and water are alike open for use. The air in winter is 
cold enough for exhilaration, but generally not chilling and 
repressive. In the autumn, it is a luxury to move in it, and 
breathe it in. In the summer, sunstrokes seldom ever occur 
under any circumstances, while they are frequent in more 
northern latitudes. In summer, the days are shorter and the 
nights longer. Nowhere can a pleasanter out-door life be 
found, for the agriculturist whose duties require it, or for the 
sportsman or pleasure-seeker. 

The character of the soil and surface in Southern Georgia 
admits of admirable and easily made roads. In the undulating 
country, they cost more, but there is more variety to invite 
out into the air and sunshine. 

7. A Sense of Security. Of this sense against molestation by 
the seasons or natural causes, we have already treated. It is 
also necessary against social injuries by law or by fellow-men. 
Here, too, serious misapprehensions prevail. There is an idea 
of violence and disorder in Southern society. The statistics 
of crime, like those of health, do not sustain this view ; and 
this error, too, has arisen from local and casual disturbances, 
seldom witnessed, much magnified, and concerning which 
there is really no practical feeling of apprehension. Indeed, 
the actual state of Southern society its quiescence, freedom 
from danger of outbreaks, combinations, strikes, etc. is just 
the contrary. The relation between the white people and 
the negroes is the most amiable which ever existed between 



WANTS OF MAN AND THEIR SUPPLY. 13 

two races so far asunder in external characteristics, cultiva 
tion, development of brain, and with like surroundings. No 
outbreaks occurred during the war. The supposed volcano 
upon which we lived gave forth no eruption and caused no 
earthquakes. Considering the fearful tendencies and the bad 
management, the difficulties at an early period after the war 
were few and inconsiderable. Nowhere do a larger propor 
tion of the population sleep without locks on their doors than 
in Georgia and the South generally, fearless both of violence 
and theft. 

8. Instruction. This, in some sections of Georgia, for some 
years longer, must depend largely on parents and the habits 
of the individual. For abundant school advantages, a certain 
density of population is necessary, and the want of this 
presents the only difficulty. The needful conditions improve 
with the increase of population, and as we regain our wealth 
and prosperity. 

9. Diversion could not be omitted from a Frenchman s 
catalogue of needs, nor could a Sense of the Beautiful. So far 
as nature goes, variety gratifies both, and we have that of 
season and climate, of soil and surface, plants and trees, of 
sky and sunsets, of mountains and plains. For a natural sense 
of the Beautiful, we have both grand and quiet scenery. The 
country beautiful enough in itself, but upon which, if the 
expense devoted to many others had been bestowed, it would 
indeed be an earthly paradise. 

Every charm of cultivation, of flowers and shrubbery, can be 
added with less cost than in most climates. 

Of the Southern people, it may be truly said that they are a 
hospitable people, friendly to strangers and given to hospi 
tality ; and a foreigner with ordinary prudence will not find 
them otherwise. If he exhibit good sense and good feeling, 
he will soon have numerous and attached friends. 

To one other want we shall refer viz., Money. This is 
the means of procuring, by exchange, those tilings which 
money will supply, though not all of the foregoing wants. 
For making money or the things money will buy its full 
equivalent in comfort the South presents excellent oppor 
tunities to those who have skill or capital, or both. Like all 
other countries, it is subject to " hard times," but no family 



14 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

need ever know want. Agriculturally, it has the best of money 
crops Cotton, if not abused. For Manufacturing, it presents 
the finest opening to be found in the world. For Mining 
industry, also fine facilities. For Trade, good inducements to 
those who have capital. For Professional work, it is not yet 
so ripe. 

Various conveniences and appliances, also, are necessary, 
such as Roads, Railroads, Churches, Schools, Court-Houses, 
and the machinery of Justice and Law. In these respects 
the advantages over a new country are world-wide. The 
roughness of a pioneer life is over, and the advantages of 
a social and industrial progress already attained. There is 
land cleared yet woodland convenient, railroad facilities 
ample for the present and for many years to come, a settled 
state of society, churches to go to, schools for children, laws 
established. 

It is difficult to convey a full idea of the presence of these 
advantages compared with their absence. 

The distinction drawn by Bastiat between the laborious 
supply of human wants and their gratuitous supply by nature, 
is eminently favorable here. Nature does what elsewhere, 
by much labor, art must accomplish. Take warmth for 
example, and compare the necessary provision for our winters 
and those of a cold country. Take the food of cattle as 
another illustration, and think of them as grazing through the 
winter on barley, oats, or rye in the South, compared with 
cattle housed through the winter and fed on dry forage in the 
North. In the spring, the farmer of each section has his ox 
or his cow, but how different the trouble and expense ! So 
far as natural advantages go, nature has just stopped short 
of prodigality. 

The people of the State are (it may be considered as a 
matter of course) much attached to the country, and accus 
tomed to refer to it always in terms of highest appreciation. 
" The Sunny South," " The Land of the Sun," " The finest land 
the sun shines on," " The Garden-Spot of the World " these 
expressions are not infrequent. Many Northern men have 
endorsed them. Men who have travelled extensively have 
said, that taking it all in all, it is one of the finest countries to 
live in. The land is not so rich as in some sections, but ill 



SUGGESTIONS TO IMMIGRANTS. 15 

health usually accompanies very rich land ; yet one year with 
another, with good management, there will be a reliable 
quantity of products, botli for supplies and for sale. 

For home comfort and abundance, no country is better 
suited, if one will but make them a prime object. Germans 
and other foreigners have frequently remarked on the advan 
tage of winter crops, and the ground working for them all 
the time, and not being ice-bound in winter. 

Increased population would rapidly lead to diversification 
of pursuits, which again would rapidly develop the needed 
capital from within, if not from abroad; and we do not hesitate 
to say, as the result of observation and experience, that the 
best immigration, next to that from the neighboring States 
(of South and North Carolina and Virginia), is the immigration 
from the Northern States, rather than from abroad. These 
are soonest assimilated. The best means of harmonizing the 
sections is by the mutual acquaintance to which such immi 
gration will give rise. Sectional antipathies are based on 
mutual ignorance, and disappear before knowledge. 

SUGGESTIONS TO IMMIGRANTS. 

Come and see for yourselves. Do not expect fairy-land, or 
exemption from labor and care ; but come and compare 
climate, productions, and the general conditions of comfort 
with those to be had elsewhere, and you will find them to 
compare favorably. You will quickly see that we have not 
improved our natural advantages adequately ; but you will 
find that Nature has done her part well ; and if you but bring 
with you good habits of painstaking and economy, you will 
soon build up a delightful home. You will find good sense 
and good feeling ; and in any considerable community, men 
of culture and refinement. Still generally they do not show 
so well at first as on longer acquaintance. 

You should visit the country, and see the capacities of the soil 
and climate. Do not regard the present agriculturists as 
knowing every thing, nor yet fall into the contrary error of 
supposing they know nothing. In fact, they know much ; 
yet the present is but a transition state, and they have not 
fully solved the problem of conformity to the new conditions 



16 HAND-BOOK OF GEOKGIA. 

of life and labor. The young men and the new men are now 
on an equal experience level with the old so you will have 
a fair start. 

The inducements generally referred to are agricultural. 
Those for manufacturers are equally great. For success in 
these, nothing is needed but capital and good management; 
and where will they thrive without both ? All the needful 
conditions are here for the development of the most profitable 
manufacturing industry in the whole country. We were just 
beginning to reach that stage of development when the war 
arrested it. Again, in Georgia, more rapidly than anywhere 
else in the South, this progress has begun. There is, too, a 
large population fit for it, and to be benefited by it. Climate, 
material, and power, all exist together in an unsurpassed con 
dition. Mining can be profitably pursued, under like condi 
tions of capital and good management. 

Professional men we do not need so much as men of science 
and skill. Our people have, themselves, devoted much more 
of their time to other subjects than to science or to expertness 
in labor. 

We would not overestimate the advantages. There are 
drawbacks to all good things, and compensations to all evils. 
We would not encourage Utopian views, but we think 
Georgia, all things considered, one of the most desirable of all 
the States open for immigration, and still inadequately popu 
lated. In all lands, there are sickness and death, hard times, 
evil days and evil people,, mixed with the blessings and the 
good things of life. Trouble and discipline, labor and sorrow, 
are incident to all climes ; yet Nature has been prodigal in 
her gifts to us, and man rieeds^only average care and skill to 
make here as happy homes as the world has ever known. The 
earth, with its range of productions, the sun and air and con 
ditions of climate, the abundant wood and water and water- 
power, the present settled state of the country and degree of 
development, and the future promise for one s children of a 
btill higher development all point to the South as admirably 
suited for immigration, and to no part of the South more 
aan to Georgia. 



1. THE COUNTRY. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE STATE. 



1. OUTLINE OF PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

IN the following pages the object will be to convey to the 
ti reader a correct outline of the appearance of the surface of the 
State, Tm4 the materials which make up that surface and the 
underlying crust of the earth, so far as penetrated either by 
the farmer s plough or the miner s pick ; to describe the drain 
age system of the State in its relation to the location of mills 
and factories ; the transportation of materials of export and 
import, arid the natural supply of timber for building or man 
ufacturing, as they appear to one making a mineralogical, geo 
logical, and physical survey. 

From Lookout Mountain, in Dade County, one can see the 
larger part of Cherokee Georgia. From Pine Log Mountain 
in Bartow, and Stone Mountain in De Kalb, or Mount Airy 
in Habersham, one sees Xorthern-Middle Georgia. From 
Brown s Mountain in Bibb, one can get an idea of Southern- 
Middle Georgia. From Paramore s Hill, Scriven County, one 
may see the characteristic features of South-eastern Georgia. 

Standing on Pine Log Mountain, on the border of Bartow 
and Cherokee Counties, one sees in the north-west the High 
Point of Lookout Mountain, which is the continuation of the 
Alleghany or Cumberland Range ; toward the north, Fort 
Mountain, the southern extremity of the Cohuttas, a prolonga 
tion of the Unaka or western branch of the Blue Ridge ; to 
the north-east, Grassy Mountain, the south-western extremity 
of the Blue Ridge proper, which extends to the Enota in 
Towns County, and to the Rabun Bald. 



18 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

A little north of east, a prominent point is Mount Yonah in 
White County, which, with Walker s Mountain in Lumpkin, 
Sawnee Mountain in Forsyth, Sweat, Kenesaw, and Lost 
Mountains in Cobb, and Oak Ridge in Carroll Counties, form 
a line of peaks extending north-east and south-west across 
almost the entire State, from South Carolina to Alabama; and 
the five last named divide the Chattahoochee waters from those 
of the Alabama. 

To the south-east of Pine Log can be seen Stone Mountain, 
the last high point in the Chattahoochee Ridge which extends 
in a similar manner across the State north-east and south- west, 
and divides the Chattahoochee from the streams which empty 
into the Atlantic . east of Atlanta, from those west of this 
place which flow into Flint River, and unite with the Chatta 
hoochee, just after crossing the Florida line, forming the 
Appalachicola which runs to the Gulf of Mexico. 

To the south-west, one sees Pine Mountain, an extension of 
Pine Log ; and west of that are the Allatoona Hills of Bartow 
County, south of Etowah River ; and still farther Carries 
Mountain in Polk, and the Dug Down Mountains which 
separate Polk from Haralson, reaching to the Alabama line. ^ , ^ 
The region in view embraces North-west or Cherokee Georgia, \o 
and is the main portion of the mineral territory ofthe_Sj 
Lookout is the highest of a series of ridges^muued Sand 
Mountain, Lookout Mountain, Taylor s Ridge, Johns Moun 
tain, and Chattoogata Ridge^v-running north-east and south 
west from Tennessee into Alafbama, and containing the Coal 
and f ossilif erous Iron Ore. -- ^- J*** o-w^n... n&4 <fr* &&#-* ** Me fc^ s 

The Cohutta is a continuation of the Unaka Range of Ten- S 9 if 
nessee, and runs north and south, ^containing Copper with 
some Lead and Silver Ore. On the western border of this 
range are the beds of Baryta, Manganese, Brown Hematite 
Iron Ore, and Slate. 

On the east, between the Cohutta and the Blue Ridge, is 
one belt of Marble, and adjacent to it the Gold-bearing Schists 
which extend from North Carolina to Alabama and reappear 
on the south side of the Blue Ridge, with a belt of Serpentine 
Soapstone and Limestone on the north side of the Chatta 
hoochee Ridge, in the rich Gold territory of Habersham, 
White, Lumpkin, Forsyth, and Hall Counties, lying north of 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 19 

these calcareous and magnesian carbonates and silicates, and 
extending from South Carolina to Alabama. 

South of the Chattahoochee Ridge, there is another Soap- 
stone belt with similar hydromica, micaceous, and chloride 
schists, which is also to some extent Gold-bearing. After 
passing a series of hornblendic Gneisses, there comes still 
another belt of steatitic, silicious, and hydromicaceous schists, 
on a line with Graves Mountain in Lincoln County; and after 
passing another hornblendic belt, the same again recur on the 
line of Oak and Pine Mountains in Harris County, bounded on 
the south by Gneisses and Granite. 

The intervals between these Gold-bearing rocks make the 
Blue, Chattahoochee, and Oak Mountain Ridges, and are at 
some points Copper-bearing. 

This brings us to the middle of the State, where the Railroad 
from Augusta, via Milledgeville, Macon, and Columbus, marks 
the border of the 



CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY SEAS. 





The Cretaceous extended from Columbus ^ Butler, and 
formed deposits from this line south to Pataula Creek, above 
Fort Gaines. The Tertiary covered the rest of the State with 
Marl-beds, Limestones, etc., as far south as to Chatham County, 
and thence by the junction of Oconee and Ocmulgee Rivers, 
and via Quitman on the Withlacoochee, to the Florida line. 
The latest tertiary sands and clays cover the remainder of the 
State, or South-eastern Georgia, and gradually descend to the 
Okefinokee Swamp, not much more than one hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. 

The surface of the State shows one other peculiar feature, 
in the heavy beds of sand, gravel, and pipe clay, which border 
the older granitic and gneissoid rocks along the line of railroad 
referred to above, and extending" generally 10 to 20 miles 
southward, sometimes forming hills capped with ferruginous 
sandstone. These deposits have been referred to the flooding 
of the Southern States by the water from melting ice at the 
close of the Glacial Period, when the rocks of the Northern 
States were grooved and striated by the grinding of the 
immense ice-masses which covered the greater portion of the 



20 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

continent north of the Ohio River, and, by their melting, 
deposited " Moraines" and drift-beds over the Middle States ; 
while the floods of water from their extremities poured over 
the Atlantic and Gulf States in streams which formed gra 
vel-beds at Washington, Richmond, Fayetteville, Columbia, 
Milledgeville, Tuscaloosa, Jackson, and Vicksburg, laying the 
foundations for Capital cities in a soil admirably drained, and 
with fine springs of freestone water just at the head of navi 
gation of the principal rivers. 

After this Glacial or Drift Period closed, there was a slower 
flow of the waters; the sediment deposited formed a blue clay, 
which is the characteristic of our rice swamp and tide-water 
swamps, and this was the last change that the surface under 
went until the period when man began to record his observa 
tions in the Human Aye, to mark on trees ;&#& rocks and 
wharves the highest and lowest water-marks, to observe the 
amount of mud and sand deposited each year by the spring 
freshets, and to note the gradual filling up of marshes by the 
sediment from streams flowing into them, the accumulation of 
vegetable matter from leaves and brandies and moss-beds, and 
the building of reefs by the gradual accumulation of oyster- 
shells along the coasts. 

2. GEOLOGY. 

Geology is the science which describes the physical 
features of the earth, the rocks which compose its crust, 
the order of their arrangement, the remains of vegetable 
and animal life which are buried in the layers accessible to 
man, and the forces which have in the past made changes in 
these layers, or are now doing so. It is interesting to the 
Agriculturist, the Miner, the Manufacturer, and the Merchant. 

To the Farmer, it is of the highest importance to know the 
origin of the soil which he cultivates, and the causes of the 
changes which it undergoes. 

To the Miner, it is essential that he should understand the 
relations of the metal-bearing rocks to those which are of no 
value, so that he may expend his labor where profit will result. 

To the Manufacturer, the cheapest pOAver that can be 
applied is furnished by the waterfalls formed by the passage 
of streams over beds of rocks which resist their wearing effect. 



ORIGIX OF SOILS CRUST OF THE EARTH. 21 

To the merchant, the cost of transportation is a prime factor 
in estimating his profits ; and this is regulated by the number 
and character of the rivers which furnish the cheapest means 
of conveyance, and the mountain ranges which impede traffic 
or limit the range of the market in supply and demand. 

Let us inquire, What are soils ? They are simply the result 
of the action of the atmosphere and water, and the heat of the 
sun, or the disintegrating effect of frost on the rocks which 
make up the earth s surface, and the remains of vegetables 
and animals mingled with these. They consist of the same 
elements as the rocks from which they are derived ; and these 
rocks are made up of minerals, which, in turn, can be separated 
into chemical elements or simple bodies which can not be 
further separated in other words, are not compound. 

The ancients recognized only four elements of which all natu 
ral objects were supposed to be composed viz., Earth, Air, 
Fire, and Water. 

Chemists have been able, by means of the galvanic battery, 
to separate water into two gases, Hydrogen and Oxygen. The 
air or atmosphere they have found to be a mixture of two 
gases, Oxygen and Nitrogen, with a small and variable 
amount of watery vapor, and a still less amount of Carbonic 
Acid and Ammonia. The Earth, or the rocky crust which is 
exposed to view on the surface, and those substances which 
are dug out of it called Minerals, they find to contain about 69 
elements of different physical properties. 

In digging the deep mines and boring artesian wells, it has 
been found that there is a constant and tolerably regular in 
crease of heat, after passing 50 feet as we descend toward the 
centre of the earth, amounting to about 1 per cen4 for every 
100 feet. At a depth of 30 miles, this heat would, at this rate, 
become so great as to melt iron, and at 50 miles all the 
other metals and the rocks, but for the fact that the increase of 
pressure of matter above, raises the melting-point of these 
rocks. It is also known that all bodies give out heat into the 
air or surrounding bodies in space ; and hence the conclusion 
is drawn that, during the long period which has elapsed since 
the earth was created, there has been a gradual diminution of 
its temperature, and that originally it existed in a gaseous 
condition. Then, as it cooled, it became liquid, and finally 



22 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

the outer portion or crust became solid, while beneath the 
crust, at a depth of 20 or 30 miles, there may still be found 
liquid matter, such as is thrown out from volcanoes as lava, 
and such as the Trap-rock which we find penetrating the other 
and stratified rocks. Cooling is accompanied by contraction. 
As this has taken place, the figure of the earth has been 
modified so as to form two immense troughs, in which the 
water has collected, separated by two large bodies of land, 
the Western Continent or America, and the Eastern Continent 
or Old World. The Western Continent has two long ranges 
of mountains parallel to the borders of the oceans the 
Appalachians on the Atlantic, and the Rocky Mountains on 
the Pacific side. 

From the shells, bones, teeth, etc., of animals found in the 
rocks, it is inferred that animals to which these parts belonged, 
lived while the sand, clay, etc., in which we find them were 
being deposited from water. By comparing these relics which 
we dig up, and hence c&\\. fossils, with the corresponding parts 
of animals now living, we find that those dug up near the 
ocean are very nearly of the same kind as those now living. 

The oyster-shells found near the line of Chatham and 
Effingham Counties are almost exactly like those of the rac 
coon oyster now living in the neighborhood of Savannah. 
The shells found at Enoch s Mill, in Effingham County, are 
somewhat different from those now living on the sea-coast ; 
and the vertebral bones found there are those of a saurian or 
lizard-like animal, but not the same as those of the alligator 
now living in Okefinokee Swamp. 

The shells found in the marl-beds in Scriven County differ 
still more from those now living ; and at Shell Bluff, in Burke 
County, we find oyster-shells a foot long, which no one would 
take for the edible Virginia or Savannah oyster. 

The corals which we find on Lookout Mountain are entirely 
different from those found near Thomasville. In the lime 
stones of Dade Valley, near Trenton, we find the remains of ani 
mals called Orthoceras, entirely different from any now living 
in any part of the world. In Bartow County, near Adairsville, 
we find a remarkable fossil, called by geologists Lingula, 
from its tongue shape, and from its being found in the lowest 
rocks, Linyula prima, a form of life which has had repre- 



EARLIEST LIFE. 23 

sentatives or relatives in all the rocks which have been formed. 



from the lowest to the highest. 

The remains of plants found buried in the shales of Lookout 
and Sand Mountains are entirely different from any now living, 
from the mountains to the seaboard of Georgia. 

Again, we find rocks in which there is no vestige of life ex 
cepting a few sea-weed impressions and worm-holes bored by 
animals, when the mud and clay were soft and still retained 
in the rocks after they have been subjected to pressure from 
hundreds of feet of matter piled in layers above them. 

Finally, there are rocks in Georgia which show no signs of 
there being any thing living at the time they were deposited ; 
and these rocks are as hard as if they had boon baked in a 
pottery-furnace for a thousand years, and wo find running 
through them veins and wedges of Granite and Trap, which 
look almost the same as the lava now pouring from Vesuvius. 

From these and thousands of similar data, geologists have 
reasoned, that after the earth had cooled enough to form a 
solid crust, the water and atmosphere gradually wore away 
the exposed rocks, and spread out or, to use a Latin word, 
stratified the grains of sand and particles of kaolin and frag 
ments of limestone over the sea-bottom. The sea-weeds which 
grew in the warm waters of the ocean were sometimes buried 
in the layers ; and on the beach, worms, which could live in 
water almost boiling, bored their holes in the soft sand or 
plastic clay. 

As the earth and the waters above the earth cooled still 
farther and contracted still more, life in the waters increased ; 
and the Brachiopods, or animals with arm-like feet, began to 
float around in search of food, and corals began to grow and 
form reefs. In the shallow waters hemmed in by these coral 
reefs, there began to grow a luxuriant swamp vegetation 
inhaling the superabundant carbonic acid of the atmosphere, 
and giving off again the oxygen for air-breathing animals, 
while they stored away the carbon in their own skeletons or 
trunks; and when they died formed peat-bogs or marsh-muck- 
like that which now covers the Okefinokee Swamp to a depth 
of four or five feet. 

By an oscillation or bending of the earth s crust beneath the 
swamp, there came an inroad of the sea-water, bringing clay 



24 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

and sand and pebbles, and covered up the vegetable matter, 
just as the charcoal-burner does his kiln, in a small way ; and 
then, as the sands accumulated and the bottom of the marsh 
and the underlying crust bent down beneath the increased 
weight of deposits, and approached nearer the central heat, 
these plants were partially coked and lost a large part of the 
oxygen and hydrogen which they contained as water or 
steam; and the portion made of carbon remained partly as 
fixed carbon, while some of it united with hydrogen as hydro 
carbon or bitumen, to serve as a source of gas for our modern 
gas-meters. 

In some places, the bending down of the earth s crust was 
so great that a break occurred, and the heated rocky matter 
from the interior escaped in the form of trap dikes, granite 
veins, etc.; and where these came near the coal, the bitumen 
was driven out, and left pure carbon as Anthracite Coal, as in 
Pennsylvania. 

This has not occurred near enough to the coal deposits in 
Georgia to form this kind of coal, though in some of the 
older rocks we find it in another and still more altered form, 
as Graphite or Black Lead, which is nearly pure carbon with 
a little Iron ; and in the Itacolumite Sandstones, small quan 
tities of carbon have perhaps been changed to the purest form, 
that of the Diamond ; since occasionally we find a perfectly 
crystallized Diamond in the debris, resulting from the washing 
down of this sandstone in White, Hall, and Lumpkin Counties. 
Three of these are now in the State, one beautiful crystal 
having 24 faces, or reflecting surfaces ; another having 48 
faces, and a third which has been cut and polished by the 
jeweller and set in a ring. 

One other form of carbon occurs in .Clay County, near Fort 
Gaines, which still shows the woody structure, and is called 
Lignite. 

The rivers of the present day are constantly wearing away 
the rocks, and deposit at their mouths a fine sediment, and, 
when they overflow, a similar alluvium along the flats outside 
of their banks. 

The land near the mouths is sometimes raised by the 
oscillations of the earth s crust, and land vegetation then 
begins. There have been apparently a number of these eleva- 



GEOLOGIC UPHEAVALS. 25 

tions in Georgia, which have not only been sufficient to raise 
the country about the mouths of rivers, but the whole 
coast region, from 15 miles above Savannah, along a curved 
line to the junction of the Oconee and Ocmulgee where they 
form the Altamaha, and around to the west, embracing the 
country where the Allapaha and Withlacoochee now have their 
feeders in the branches and creeks of Irwin and Colquitt Coun 
ties, and along the ridge which divides these from the head 
waters of the Ocklockonee and the streams of Thomas County, 
forming the water-shed which separates the streams emptying 
into Appalachee Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, from those tend 
ing toward the Atlantic. 

Another elevation of the land exposed all that portion of 
the State lying between this line and one drawn from 
Augusta, via Macon, to Pataula Creek, above Fort Gaines 
on the Chattahoochee. 

Another brought up the old ocean-bed from Macon to 
Columbus. 

The next elevation in point of time brought up all the 
North-west portion of the State bounded by the Tennessee 
and Alabama lines, the Cohutta Mountains in Murray County, 
the Allatoona Hills in Bartow, and the Dug Down Mountains 
in Polk County. 

Before this there must have been another which raised 
Lookout Mountain and others parallel to it as far east as 
Rocky Face Ridge, Dalton, and Rome ; so that the streams 
have cut them through lengthwise from north-east to south 
west. 

Still another elevation exposed the country lying between 
the Selma Rome & Dalton Railroad, and the line already 
mentioned of the Cohutta and Dug Down, so that it has been 
denuded lower than any other section of the State ; and per 
haps at that time the Tennessee River found its way southward 
to the Gulf. At this period in the history of the state, we find 
evidence of a very extensive upheaval of the continental mass 
along the Atlantic slope. 



26 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



METAMORPHISM. 

The effect of internal heat on the shales, limestones, sand 
stones, and iron ores, has been to convert the sandstones into 
Quartzites, the shales into Slates, the limestones into Marbles, 
the mixtures of sand, lime, clay, iron, and carbon into Gneisses, 
Mica schists, Talcose schists, Chloritic and Graphitic schists. 

In some cases, the materials have been separated into 
distinct crystals, as Quartz, Rutile, Beryl, Tourmaline, Mag 
netic Iron, Pyrite, Barite, Manganite, Staurolite, etc. Lead, 
Copper, and Zinc ores have also in some cases been brought 
up in vapors from the lower or central mass, where, by 
their great specific gravity, they would naturally be col 
lected, and disseminated through the stratified rocks, either 
in layers or veins, or in minute or indiscernible particles 
scattered through the slates, and afterward, by the aid ot steam 
or dissolved silica and alkalies, have been concentrated into the 
crevices of the rocks, wherever broken, and forming cavities 
for their reception. Even Gold, one of the heaviest metals, has 
thus been found in many counties of the State, either segre 
gated or scattered. 

ELEMENTS, MINERALS, AND ROCKS. 

The crust of the earth has been compared to a great histo 
rical work, which represents the unfolding of creation and 
building up of our planet. The divisions and chapters of this 
work are represented by the Geological Formations ; the 
paragraphs and sentences by the Periods and Epochs of each 
Formation ; the words of the sentences by the different Rocks, 
and the single letters of each word by the simple Minerals. 

For a thorough understanding of this work, a knowledge of 
the minerals which form the rocks, as well as the different 
kinds of rocks, is necessary. These minerals are characterized 
(1) by their chemical composition ; (2) by their physical prop 
erties viz., their specific gravity or weight compared with 
water as a standard; their hardness, color, and lustre; and 
(3) by their cleaving or splitting, giving their common crystal 
line forms, as Cubes, having six equal faces or sides e.g., 



ELEMENTS OP THE EARTH S CRUST. 27 

Iron Pyrites and Galena; or as Octahedrons, having eight faces 
e.g., Magnetic Iron Ore; and Dodecahedrons, having twelve 
faces e.g., Garnet; or as Prisms, with six sides and two ends 
e.g., Beryl; or Pyramids, like those on the ends of Quartz, 
which are usually connected by a six-sided prism ; or, again, 
as prisms with faces like Staurolite, Feldspar, or Rutile. 

ELEMENTS. 

Of the 69 elements which chemical science has recognized, 
only 16 are sufficiently common to need further investigation 
by us ; and these are found combined and mingled in every 
soil that we cultivate. 

These elements are, in their order of abundance and import 
ance, (1) Oxygen and (2) Hydrogen, which combined form 
water. These, with (3) Nitrogen and (4) Carbon, make up the 
air. These four compose by far the greater part of all Plants 
and Animals. Oxygen combines with all the other elements, 
and especially do we find it abundant in union with (5) Silicon, 
(6) Aluminum, (7) Iron, (8) Manganese, (9) Calcium, (10) 
Magnesium, (11) Potassium, (12) Sodium, (13) Phosphorus, 
(14) Sulphur, and (15) Chlorine. 

Magnesium, Oxygen, and Silicon form Talc, the softest of all 
minerals, and called in the scale of hardness 1. 

Calcium, Sulphur, and Oxygen, with water, form Gypsum, 
and ranks 2. 

Calcium, Carbon, and Oxygen form Calcite, whose hardness 
is 3. 

Calcium and Fluorine form Fluorite, and of hardness is 4. 

Calcium, Phosphorus, and Oxygen form Apatite and in hard 
ness is 5. 

Calcium, Sodium, or Potassium, with Aluminum, united to 
Silicon and Oxygen, form Feldspar 6. 

Silicon and Oxygen or Silica (Flint or Quartz) has hardness 
rated 7. 

Silicon, Aluminum, Oxygen, and Fluorine form Topaz, of 
hardness 8. 

Aluminum and Oxygen form Corundum which is 9. 

Carbon, pure and crystallized, is the Diamond, anc 1 hardest 
of all 10. 



28 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

Iron is combined with oxygen in various proportions, and is 
called Hematite when 2 parts of Iron (Fe) combine with 3 
parts of Oxygen (O). Limonite, or Brown Iron Ore, has in 
addition to Fe 3 O 3 of Hematite, 3 parts of water. Magnetite 
or Magnetic Iron Ore, contains 3 parts of Iron and 4 parts of 
Oxygen. Iron combines with Sulphur to form Pyrite, which 
by weight contains of Iron 46 per cent, and of Sulphur 53 per 
cent. 

Copper Pyrites, or Chalcopyrite, contains in addition to 30 
per cent of Iron, and 36 per cent of Sulphur, 34 per cent of 
Copper. 

Manganese with Oxygen forms Pyrolusite, from which Mr. 
W. P. Ward, of Bartow County, is now making ferro-manga- 
nese, containing 60 per cent of manganese, worth $180 per 
ton. 

For smelting Iron from the first three, there have been 
erected in the State about 20 Furnaces, with a capacity for pro 
ducing about 300 tons per day, or 100,000 tons of pig-iron per 
annum, worth now about $20 per ton, or $2,000,000 per 
annum. Only one of these (it is believed) is now in blast 
that at Bartow Station on the "VV. & A. R.R. 

Fof smelting Copper, there were, before the war, extensive 
works erected at the " Mobile Mine " in Fannin County, but 
they were burned, and have not yet been rebuilt. There is a 
prospect of a company erecting works soon at the " Hiwassee 
Mine," in Towns County. At the " Waldrop Mine," in Haral- 
son County, the Tallapoosa Mining Company have cut a 
vein of chalcopyrite, etc., yielding, on an average, 8 per cent 
for 125 feet longitudinally, in a drift that has been opened, 
and the bed of ore found to average 5 feet in thickness for 
this distance. It is about 80 to 100 feet from the surface. 



IRON FURNACES CHEMICAL SYMBOLS. 



29 



LIST OF IRON FURNACES IN GEORGIA. 



Capacity. 
Tons per Day. 


1. 


Bartow Furnace, Bartow Station, 


Bartow Co. 


20 




2. 


Charcoal " 


u 


7 




3. 


Rogers " Rogers " 


" 


7 


Out of blast. 


4. 


Pool s " Stamp Creek. 


f( 


4 


tt n 


5. 


Brown and Thomas 










Furnace, 


" " 


4 


it n 


G. 


Cherokee Furnace, 


Polk 


40? 


Not in blast. 


7. 


^Etna 


" " 


10 





8. 


Ridge Valley Furnace, 


Floyd " 


12 


<c 


9. 


Rising Fawn 


Dade 


50 




10. 


Ward s Diamond 










Furnace, 


Bartow " 


4 




11. 


Stamp Creek Furnace, 





4 


Not in use. 


12. 


Etowah Furnace, 


u 


4 


f< 


13. 


Allatoona " 


" " 


4 


it a 


14. 


Phoenix " 


Dade 


40 


Not completed. 


15. 


Cherokee " 


H 


40 


" " 



248 



SYMBOLS OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN MINERALS. 

For the sake of brevity, chemists have adopted the following 
symbols to represent the different elements and their combina 
tions : 

Oxygen=O. 

Hydrogen =H. 

Carbon=C. 

Sulphur =S. 

Silicon=Si. 

Titanium-Ti. 

Chlorine =C1. 

Sodium or Natrium=Na. 

Potassium or Kalium=K. 

Calcium or Lime Metal =Ca. 

Magnesium =Mg. 

Barium =Ba. 

Clay Metal or Aluminum =A.l. 

Iron or Ferrum=Fe. 

Manganese =Mn. 

Cuprum or Copper=Cu. 

Plumbum or Lead=Pb. 

Aurum or Gold=Au. 

Bismuth =Bi. 



Tellurium=Te. 

Arsenic=As. 

Molybdenum =Mo. 

Zinc=Zn. 

Chromium =Cr. 

Nickel=Ni. 

Silica or Sand=Si0 2 =Si-j-20. 

Alumina=Al 2 O 3 =2Al-f30. 

Ferric Oxide =Fe 2 O 3 =2Fe-}-30. 

Ferrous Oxide=FeO. 

Manganic Oxide=Mn 2 3 . 

Manganous Oxide=MnO. 

Calcic Oxide (Lime)^CaO. 

Magnesia =MgO. 

Water=H 2 O=2H+0. 

Soda=NaO. 

Potasli=KO. 

Baryta=BaO. 

Boracic Acid=B0 3 . 



30 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



MINERALS FOUND IN GEORGIA, GIVING THE PERCENTUM OF 
THEIR CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. 



1 

i 


O!H 


c 


8 


Si 


Ti 


CINa 


Al 


Fe 


c 

& 


5 


I 
PbAu 


BiTe ; As 


S ;Zu 


CrM 








100 


































2 Graphite 






100 

100 


































3 Coal 












































100 


































5 Gold. 




























100 


M 










6 ! Tetradymite. . 
7 Galena. 
SPvrite 








is 

r >3 




















86 


48 


" 


:: 















<\~ 














9:Mispickel.... 
10 ! Molybdenite.. 
lljUhalcopyrite.. 
12| Halite 







.. 


90 

41 
86 












84 














46 i 




.. 


























59 -. 










80 




35 


















ii 














80 


40 





7:2 
38 
23 


.. 
9 


.. 


















18 Magnetite.... 
14iFranklinite... 
151 Chromic Iron. 
16 Water. 


I 

89 
46 

Ti 


ii 


ii 


















ii 





" 




"" 

















30 




17 1 Corundum 
18 Hematite 














53 


70 








































19 Ilmenite. 


81 










1-" 








64 
























20 Pyrolusite 


87 




















63 























21iRutile 


89 










61 


















22iLimonite 


87 


o 
















61 






















88 Quartz 


r >3 








17 
































24 Opal 
25JMeteoric Iron 

! 


53 






.. 47 














































90 .. 




















10 











































C* 



cT 

^ 







* 



C 

S 


g 


| 


c 




O 




O 

d 



!^ 


S 


O 

&H 


2 

PH 


c" 

cc 


8 





g 


O 

S 


O 

5 


Pyroxene 


^ 








?8 


17 




























Rhodonite 


10 




5 


"i ^ 










o 























Hornblende... 


no 


9 


10 




12 


18 














" 














Beryl 


67 


18 










1 


























Chrysolite 


?(i 










r >0 




c, 
























Garnet 


86 


18 


is 


81 
































Epidote 


3(> 


M 


14 




9:> 






























Biotite 


10 


16 


8 


00 














10 


















Muscovite 


46 


83 


4 






8 






4 






















Labradorite 
Orthoclase. 


54 

(Hi 


30 

00 






12 










4 


14 



















Staurolite 


I t 


?S 


11 






o 




























Kyanite 




68 




































Tourmaline 
Talc 


38 

<; 


31 


9 




2 


9 

31 





g 


5 


8 


- 


3 











8 


- 




Saponite 


4*1 


q 


1 






->" 






1 ( ) 


1 




















Serpentine 


19 










1 1 






11 






















Chlorite 


ai 


17 


B 






84 






13 






















Barite 




























31 








66 




Gypsum 










83 








1 










46 












Pyromorphite. . 
























9 


88 






K; 








Lazulite 


8 


36 


^ 






10 






ft 














1 








Wavellitc 




37 














OS 














81 








Calcite 










r i6 




















n 










Siderite 
















6 














88 










Malachite... 






























>8 








70 


Stilbite 


-18 


16 















17 








" 
























































PHYSICAL CHARACTER OF MINERALS. 



31 








ill Pi 



g "3 



ii 

Colo 



in tn 

(NO 



1! 


s i ! i i I i ! i 3 





in ic 

13 




c 

^ 

J 

o 


i 


fe 


.0 t-^TT^^^. 


^ 


10 Tt 


i-. 


y 







! : : i : : : : : : 














: : : : : :::::: 












8 


s 




J. 










jjj o 




d* 








o 

W 

a 
o 


>-ii- < g SCO02CO^CO ^ 




C 


t 


C 

5 







: : : : : :::::: 




: 








H 

a 


: : : : : : : . : : 




j 











d J : : - : S : "3 g U 

s .ti : : > ^ : ^ -S o. 


I 
> 


Franklinite 

Ohromfi Troi 


i 

b 


? 

E 

] 





TH <N CO 



S ?3 S ?, S S 



32 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 






i 

f|- i | 




LOCALITY. 


1 tl 

* 1 

1 if!! I 

il Iflf ! * 
es is S-i I* j 

K; {j- d" w ^ " i2 ca c 

| ll *.sJ i| ] 

p1a rt of * 


Rabun, White. 
Paulding, Cherokee. 
Troup. 


(6 


|1 | JN t 6 * 

bT _w *7^ <" *^ S o ^ 

i 111. 1 i 1 I l ifl! | ! 

A"| ^ O rj ^ hldl^ QH^C 


) * K O 


HARDNESS. 


10 10 
10 10 10 CO CO co 

f 111 1 , *-*. T -4 T J 

IO 1OC*CO lO t- IO TtlO lOlOt- 


10 

) tj. tp 

10 10 10 
> CD CO CO 


SPECIFIC 
GRAVITY. 


et eo oo 10 co -t t> 
o T* T* fc> ed co co 

1 II III 

lOOO-rn CO IO O5 COff TfOSCC 

10 ^ TJ< TI< eo ff* i-i t^ co eo e* c< 


CO 

1 TT 

eo TH co 
eo eo co 


1 


! ! : 


Q* 


02 





O2 





I -^ C 
: 52, Q a 


O, (jf 


CHEMICAL C 


9 o s c 

* ^ : - 1 -It* 

fa B K-^Ooo- 1 
oo o t g| |oo c 

cj MM ^ o O O o ^^ *s! 


^ a^ Q O^ 

15 o O 02 

isl 


NAME. 


1 1 1 I ^ 1 1 1 1 ._, 


Chrysolite 
Garnet 
Epidote 


i 


S SSSSSS^^^^gi 


8 55 8 



T 



PHYSICAL CHARACTER OP MINERALS. 



33 



I 

2 

I 

| | 

O O 



a 



* g | s x 

s a I S S 



* i ^ ^ i ^ . * * 

3552.S 



a 5 I 
a -3 

.SA 



kJ fHK^ M f^^^^K^ *H *H 

^O^OOW^^OO 



co 
I 


l r 7 




T 


Jii . i TT 


csf ci 


o J. ,i 




^ ^ 


<Ni-ieooeoeococoeo 



-H 1-1 l> 



o 

CO (M <N co 







: : : o 














o 


1 


: . . H 

II . O 
to 

6 ?| 




Is 








g 


: l 
1 


o 

nT 


a" : o" 
g&oU" 




!i= 








) 

i 



o o o 



O -J 

w o" 



-*-"3 3 

fe o o o 9i W, 
o & 3? 3. S g 



O O O O ^5 O O O 

! OD 35 S3 bo 53 S 



O C/3 



I ^|M ii 

! Illtl 

s saSlS g 



ali ! 
IISH 



S S a 



r- Ti S 4> -*- 1 
a 13 O * T 1 



0,^^-E; a g 5 
a 5^3 >a>>c3>C 

Q!ocaOPHi-j^ 



lachite 
bite 



"3 S ~ S 

o w ^ CP 

C5 O T-I C< 

^ 1T3 O 1O 



34 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



CRYSTALLINE ROCKS. 

1 Dolerite consists of Labradorite, Augite, and Magnetic Iron. 

2 Diabase " " " " Chlorite. 

3 Hypersthenite consists of Labradorite and Hypersthene. 

4 Diorite " Hornblende and Albite. 

5 Syenite " " " Orthoclase. 

6 Granite " Quartz, Mica, and Feldspar. 

7 Gneiss " " " " " banded. 

8 Granulite " " and granular Feldspar. 

9 Mica Slate " " Mica, which is varied by addition of 

other Minerals. 
Hydromica Slate or Schist, Quartz, and hydrous Mica, and called Tal- 

cose when it consists of Quartz, Mica, and Talc. 
Chloritic Slate consists of Quartz, Mica, and Chlorite. 
Hornbleudic Slate consists of Quartz, Mica, and Hornblende. 
Graphitic Slate " " " Graphite. 

10 Itacolumite " " and Talc. 

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ARE 

Clayey, as Shales, Slates. 
Marly, as beds of sand and clay with shells. 
Calcareous, as limestone, dolomites. 
Silicious, as laminated sandstones, sand-beds, etc. 

Conglomerate, as granite conglomerate of Augusta, ferruginous conglom 
erate of the Drift. 
Carbonaceous, as coal-seams, lignite-beds, graphitic slates. 

ROCKS (CRYSTALLINE). 

Dolerite or Trap. ( 1) This is an igneous rock. It came to the 
surface in a melted state through an opened fissure. The part 
filling the fissure is called a dike. Trap is a very hard, dark, 
and heavy rock. The surface is generally yellow or red from 
decomposition, but its interior is a dark blue. Its weight has 
caused it to be considered an iron ore by many who know 
nothing of its constituents. A very large dike of trap extends 
from a point east of Newman, in Cow^eta County, passing 
through Meriwether, over Pine Mountain, near the Chaly 
beate Springs, into Talbot County, and on the easterly edge of 
Hamilton to a point three miles north-east of Geneva. There are 
many other dikes in the State. The rock is a compound of 
Labradorite and Augite, and is called Dolerite. 



COMPOSITION OF ROCKS. 35 

Syenite (5). Some granite rocks contain Hornblende instead 
of Mica, and the name Syenite is given to them. The rock 
is generally dark from the color of the Hornblende. 

Syenitic Gneiss (5a) is the name given to the gneissoid 
variety of Syenite, and is a gneiss containing Hornblende 
instead of Mica, occurring abundantly in the Blue Ridge, etc. 

Jlydromica Schist (9a) contains a hydrous Mica, has a greasy 
feel, and looks like Talcose Schist, but contains no Talc. This 
forms a large part of the rocks supposed to be of Quebec age. 

Marble (10) is a crystalline limestone, and is found of a 
black color at Tunnel Hill, red at Dalton, pink at Varnell s 
Station, blue at Rockmart, white near Jasper in a bed 50 
feet thick on the bank of Long Swamp Creek, and also blue 
on the same creek. Another locality of the white is near 
Buchanan, and still another near Van Wert. All of these are 
Magnesian or Dolomitic limestones, and probably belong to the 
Quebec age. 

Granite (6) is composed of grains of Quartz, Feldspar, and 
Mica mixed promiscuously together, and bearing no relative 
proportion to each other. Sometimes the Mica is a biotite, 
black variety, but is usually muscovite. The color of granite 
is usually nearly white in this State. It varies in fineness 
according as the ingredients are coarse or fine-grained. This 
is the material of Stone Mountain, and covers a large portion 
of the metamorphic region of the State. 

Gneiss (7) has the same constituents as granite, but they are 
arranged more or less in planes. It appears banded and often 
splits into layers. On account of the splitting into layers, it 
is said to be schistose ; and this character is the only one 
distinguishing it from granite. This is the prevailing rock 
of the group marked Cincinnati. 

Mica Schist (9) has the same constituents as granite, but 
the Mica is the most abundant. It divides into thin layers 
and glistens in the sun, owing to the scales of mica. If the 
layers are smooth and the scales indistinct, it is called Mica 
Slate 5 this variety contains very little quartz. 



36 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



ROCKS (NOT CRYSTALLINE). 



Limestone. This is of ch*l|. shades frf-eoloFj- ^a^yiftg from 
white through gray to brown and black. It is chiefly composed 
of Carbonate of Lime in rock form. When burnt, the carbonic 
acid escapes, leaving the lime in the form of quicklime. 
Chalk and Marble are varieties of limestone. All of the varie 
ties together are called calcareous rocks. 

Sandstone. This is a rock made of sand, which may be 
quartz alone, or may contain feldspar grains, clay, limestone, 
or mica. The colors are various, from white to red and black. 
It is sometimes flexible, sometimes flinty, and sometimes 
saccharoidal, like grains of sugar. 

Conglomerate. A conglomerate is composed of gravel and 
sand or other coarse material, cemented together by lime, 
silica, or iron. If the latter, the rock is called Ferruginous 
Conglomerate. This latter is very common along the line of 
the Quaternary, from Columbus to Augusta, and has fre 
quently been mistaken for Iron Ore. 

Shale is a fine mud or clay, consolidated into a rock having 
a slaty fracture, but less firm and less evenly slaty than true 
slate. Colors are from gray, through red, yellow, brown, and 
black. Clay is a fine kind of mud, formed by the decomposi 
tion of feldspar, and mixed with more or less sand and other 
impurities. The purest clay is white, and called Kaolin, used 
in the manufacture of porcelain wares, and found in abun 
dance near Milledgeville, and at other points along the Co 
lumbus and Augusta Railroad, formed from the disintegration 
of the Feldspar in the Granite. 

Argillaceous Sandstone. This is a sandstone in which clay 
forms a large ingredient. When breaking in thin slabs, as it 
usually does, it is called laminated sandstone. 

Slate differs from shale in breaking more evenly and being 
much firmer. Roofing slate is of this kind, of which large 
quantities are found at Rockmart, in Polk County. This was 
formed from shale by heavy pressure and heat, by a partial 
action of the metamorphism previously spoken of. 



GEOLOGICAL PERIODS. 



37 



2b, GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS IN GEORGIA. 

The Lower Silurian (from the Silures, ancient inhabitants 
of Wales) age of rock containing fossils of molluscan type 
(i.e., those having soft bodies like the oysters of our age, 
protected by a calcareous shell), is represented in two periods. 
The hydromica schists of the copper-bearing series of the 
Mobile Mine and Ducktown, and Ocoee Conglomerates and 
Slates along the Ocoee River on the Tennessee line, and on 
the Etowah River near Cartersville, are the lowest in position 
of the rocks in the State, and form a group of (2) Primordial 
rocks corresponding to what is called the (2a) Acadian epoch 
in Canada. The Conglomerate is made up of feldspar and a 
bluish quartz. The slates are hard and silicious. This group 
of rocks is overlaid in the Cohutta Mountains, and on Pine 
Log Mountain in Bartow County, by a sandstone called the 
Chilhowee, from a mountain of that name in Tennessee, cor 
responding to the Potsdam sandstone in New York, called 
from the town of Potsdam in that State, and belongs also 
to the (2) Primordial period and to the (2b) Potsdam epoch. 
This sandstone also appears in the north of Haralson and 
Paulding Counties, and in Yonah Mountain White County, 
and Tallulah Mountain Habersham County, being at all these 
places altered into gneiss by metamorphism. 

The next period called (3) Canadian, embracing the (a) 
Calciferous or lime-bearing sandstone of New York, the 
shales, limestones, and sandstone of the (b) Quebec epoch in 
Canada, and the (c) Chazy limestone of New York, is repre 
sented by impure sandstones and cherty dolomitic limestones >. 
in the Northwestern counties ; by a sandstone on the western 
slope of the Cohutta Mountains ; and in the metamorphic 
region to the Eastward and Southward, by calcareous schists, 
hydro-mica schists, marble and itacolumite of the Quebec 
epoch, and by calcareous schists of the (a) Calciferous epoch. 

The (4) Trenton period embraces the limestones of Baptew j 
iri Murray OYfrlying thr dalomitio limostonpft-ftwl 
.the limestones of the valleys in the north-west por 
tion of the State Lookout Valley, Chicamauga Valley, etc. 
of the Trenton epoch in New York. These are folio wed mL* 
Dalton to Rome by the red shales of the (c) Cincinnati e poch, 










38 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

and in the metamorphic region by gneisses and graphitic 
slates and syenites. 

The rocks of the Upper Silurian age in this State belong to 
the Niagara period (5) of New York, and contain a sandstone of 
the Medina (a) epoch, the fossiliferous iron ores of the Clinton 
(b) epoch, as represented in Lookout Valley and McLemore s 
Cove, etc., and a limestone of the Niagara (c) epoch. They 
appear only in the north-western corner of the State. 

The next New York period, the Salina (6) or Salt-bearing 
group, has not been recognized. 

The Oriskany (8) of the New York survey is aat represented 

The age of Fishes, called Devonian (from Devonshire, Eng 
land), is represented in Georgia by the black shale b^Jy, near 
Dalton and elsewhere, often mistaken for coal ; and this 
belongs to the Genesee (10c) shale of the Hamilton (10) 
period in New York. 

The age of coal plants, or Carboniferous age, embraces 
three periods, two of which are represented in North-west 
Georgia. Lowest of these is the Subcarboniferous (13) period, 
including the (13) Silicious epoch, or cherty group, and the 
(13&) Calcareous epoch or coral-beds of Dade, Walker, 
Catoosa, Chattooga, and Floyd Counties. Overlying this we 
have the Carboniferous (14) period, including the (14a) Mill 
stone grit of Lookout and Sand Mountains, and the (14&) 
coal-measures of Dade, Walker, and Chattooga Counties. 

The third or Permian (15) period is not found in the State. 

These three ages are characterized by fossils, none of which 
are now living on the earth or in the seas ; and, from their 
old-fashioned forms, the whole of these rocks formed during 
the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous ages, are included in 
the Palaeozoic time, from the Greek words meaning ancient 
life the Primary of early geologists. 

In the Mesozoic age, or Secondary of the old geologists, 
the Triassic and Jurassic periods represented in other Atlantic 
States by sandstones, coal and trap dikes show only the trap 
dikes of Meriwether, Habersham, and other counties, the sand 
stones, if they exist, being buried under the deposits of sand, 
clay, and sandy marls filled with the shells of A-arious animals 



AGES, PEHIODS, EPOCHS. 39 

which lived in the Cretaceous age in the sea-water which washed 
against the hard granitic cliffs forming the shore-line from 
Columbus to Butler. The greatest quantity of these remains 
is found on the banks of Pataula Creek, in Clay County.. On 
examination, these shells prove to be unlike those of animals 
now living, and also different from those which are found in 
North-west Georgia, in the rocks made in Pakeozoio time ; and 
hence, aa they are intermediate, the age is called that of 
Middle Life, from the Greek words mesos (middle) and zoe 
(life). The forms correspond to those found in the Chalk 
Cliffs of England ; and hence they belong to the Cretaceous 
age, from the Latin word creta (chalk). 

After the sea-bottom of the Cretaceous period wag raised 
above the level of the water, the shore-line extended from 
Pataula Creek, by Butler, Macon, and Milledgeville, to the 
Savannah River at Augusta. The oyster-shells found at Shell 
Bluff, and in Burke, Washington, and other counties, other 
fossils found in the beds of marl of this region as far south as 
the line of Chatham County, and the corals found near 
Thomas ville, resemble very much the general forms now living; 
and hence the time in which they lived has been called the 
Cenozoic time, from kainos and zoe, Greek words meaning 
recent life. This time embraced two distinct divisions viz., 
the Tertiary or third set, and Quaternary or fourth set of rocks. 

The Tertiary age is again divided into three periods: 1, that 
in which only a small per cent of the fossils have representa 
tives now living ; 2, an intermediate period recognized in 
other States when a minority (45 per cent) of the forms 
found are like those now living ; and, 3, a later part, in which 
a majority of the species found buried in the rocks are still 
living. The first is called the Eocene, or dawn of recent life ; 
the second, Miocene, or less recent (than the next) ; the third, 
Pliocene, or more recent from the Greek words, eos (dawn), 
melon (less), pleion (more), and kainos (recent). 

The Quaternary age embraces, 1st, the drift gravels and 
the clays and sands which border the metamorphic belt from 
Columbus to Augusta ; 2d, the blue clays of the sea-coast 
counties ; 3d, the bluff calcareous sand found at Enoch s Mill ; 
and, 4th, the alluvium of the river-beds now forming. 



J 



40 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



FORMATIONS. 
The following is the most recent classification of the forma 



tions : 

AGES. 
Azoic. 

Eozoic. 
Silurian Age. 



Devonian Age. 



Carboniferous Age. 



Reptilian Age. 



PERIODS. EPOCHS. 

Azoic. 

la, Laurentian. 

16, Huronian. 
Lower Primordial. 2a, Acadian. 

26, Potsdam. 
Canadian. 3a, Calciferous. 

86, Quebec. 

Jc, Chazy. 
Trenton. "~4a, Trenton. 

46, Utica. 

4c, Cincinnati. 
Upper Niagara. 5a, Medina. 

56, Clinton. 

5c, Niagara, 

Salina. ~6, Salina. 

Lower Helderberg.7, Lower Helderberg. 
Oriskany. 8, Oriskany. 

Corniferous. 9a, Cauda Galli. 

96, Schoharie. 

9c, Corniferous. 

10a, Marcellus. 

106, Hamilton. 

lOc, Genesee. 

lla, Portage. 

116, Chemung. 

12, Catskill. 
Subcarboniferons. 13a, Lower. 

136, Upper. 



FOUND IN GEOR 
GIA. 



Acadian. 

Potsdam. 

Calciferous. 

Quebec. 

Chazy. 

Trenton. 

Cincinnati Shales. 
Taylor s Ridge. 
Fossiliferous Iron 
Niagara. [Ore. 



Black Shale. 



Mammalian Age. 19, Tertiary. 



20, Quaternary. 



Silicious. 

Calcareous. 

Grit. 

146,LowerCoalMeasures.Lookout and Sand. 
14c, UpperCoalMeasures. Round Mt. 
15, Permian. 
16a, Bunter Sandstone. 
166, MuschelKalk. 
16c, Ketiper. 
17a, Liassic. 
176, Oolytic. 
17c, Wealden. 
18ar, Lower. 
186, Middle. 
18c, Upper. 



Carboniferous. 14a, Millstone Grit. 



Permian. 
16, Triassic. 



17, Jurassic. 



18, Cretaceous. 



Trap Dikes. 



Lower. 
Middle. 



19a, Eocene. 

196, Miocene. 
19c, Pliocene. 

20a, Port Hudson. 
206, Bluff. 
20c, Drift. 
20d, Alluvium. 



fBuhrstoneor Clai- 
J borne, Jackson, 
Vicksburg, Lig_ 
[ nitic. 



Port Hudson. 



Drift. 
Alluvium. 



FORMATIONS IN SECTIONS OF GEORGIA, 41 



GROUPS OF COUNTIES IN THE DIFFERENT FORMATIONS. 

The Archean (1) or Eozoic rocks are not represented in 
Georgia, so far as is known at present, although there are some 
rocks near Columbus, and others near Augusta, which may 
possibly be of the same age as those described by geologists 
as occurring along the St. Lawrence River and on the shores 
of Lake Huron, and hence called Laurentian (la) and Huro- 
nian (1#). 

The oldest well-recognized rocks of the Primordial period 
are the Acadian, or Ocoee (2), which occur inFannin, Murray, 
Gilmer, Pickens, Bartow, and Polk Counties. The Potsdam 
proper, or Chilhowee Sandstone (26), is found in Murray, Bar- 
tow, Rabun, Habersham, White, Lumpkin, Dawson, and Har 
ris Counties. Of the Canadian period, we find the three 
groups represented: 

Calciferous (8a). CJ?~, ^^\ 

Quebec (36). 

Chazy (3e). ^, MTaXlu^O J^wv. KeJtl IMM *, *> 



Ghay metamorphosed parts of Rabun, Towns, Union, Fannin, 
A Gilmer, Lumpkin, White, Habersliam, Franklin, Banks, 

Hall, Dawson, Pickens, Bartow, Cherokee, Forsyte, Milton, 
Cobb, Paulding, Haralson, Carroll, Douglas, Fulton, De 
Kalb, Gwinnett, Jackson, Madison, Hart, Elbert, Lincoln, 
Wilkes, Oglethorpe, Clark, Walton, Coweta, Heard, Troup, 
Meriwether, Pike, Butts, Jasper, Morgan, Green, Taliaferro, 
McDuffie, Columbia, Hancock, Putnam, Monroe, Harris, and 
Upson Counties. 

Trenton Period (4) is represented by the 

Trenton Epoch (4), Dade, Walker, Catoosa, Whitefield, Murray, Gor 
don, Chattooga, Floyd, Bartow, and Polk Counties. 

Utica Epoch (46). 

Cincinnati Epoch (4c), Whitefield, Gordon, Murray, Bartow, Floyd. 

Cincinnati metamorphosed, same as those in Quebec, besides Clay 

ton, Fayette, Spalding, Henry, Rockdale, Jones, Newton. 
Niagara Period (5). 

Medina Epoch (5a). fo^ ^ 1* ^t^^TM 

Clinton Epoch (56), Whitefield, Catoosa, Dade, Walker, Chattooga,, 

Niagara Epoch (5c). & A.*U, 1V 



42 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

DEVONIAN AGE. 
Hamilton Period (10). 

Genesee Epoch (10&), Dade, Walker, Catoosa, Wliitefield, Gordon, 
Floyd, Chattooga. 

CARBONIFEROUS AGE. 

Subcarboniferous Period (13). 
Silicious Epoch (13<z), Dade, Walker, Catoosa, Wliitefield, Gordon, 

Floyd, Chattooga. 

Calcareous Epoch (13&), Catoosa, Dade, Walker, Chattooga, and Floyd. 
Carboniferous Period (14) 

Millstone Grit (14a), Dade, Walker, Chattooga. 
Lower Coal Measures (14&), Dade, Walker, Chattooga. 
Upper Coal Measures (14c), Walker. ~&Ull 

REPTILIAN AGE. 

Cretaceous (18), Muscogee, Marion, T^ffor, Chattahoochee, Stewart, 
W-ekster7 Sckley, Quitman, Randolph. (f{c y . 

MAMMALIAN AGE. 

Tertiary (19). 

Eocene Epoch (19&), Clay, Randolph ,/Terrell, Sumter, Macon, Craw 
ford, Bibb, Wilkinson, Washington, Glascock, Richmond, 
Burke, Jefferson, Scriven, Emanuel, Laurens, Pulaski, 
Dooly, Lee, Dougherty, Calhoun, Early, Miller, Decatur, 
Thomas, Mitchell, Colquitt, Worth, Irwin, Wilcox, Dodge, 
Telfair, Montgomery, Tatnall, Bullock, Effingham. 

Miocene Epoch (19&). 

Pliocene Epoch (19c), Chatham, Bryant, Liberty, Appling, Coffee, 
Berrien, Brooks, Lowndes, Echols, Clinch, Ware, Charlton, 
Camden, Pierce, Wayne, Glynn, Mclntosh. 

HUMAN AGE. 

Quaternary (20). 

Drift Epoch, Muscogee, Talbot, Taylor, Crawford, Bibb, Baldwin, 

Hancock, Warren, McDuffie, Columbia, Richmond. 
Champlain Epoch, Chatham, Mclntosh, Ulynn, Camden. 
Terrace Epoch. 

SPECIAL GEOLOGY OF COUNTIES. 

As an illustration of the general Geology of the State, 
typical counties may be selected in the different sections of 
the State, a detailed description of which will enable the 
reader better to understand the character of the whole. 

For the non-metamorphic region in the North-west, Dade 
may serve as a type. 



COUNTY FORMATIONS. 43 

Bartow represents in its western two thirds the non-meta- 

rphoset^ and in the eastern one third the metamorphic. 

Fulton represents the lower and western portion of the ele 
vated Chattahoochee Ridge ; while Ilabersham is a representa 
tive county of the eastern and higher portion, and indeed of 
all North-east Georgia. 

Bibb is on the middle ground between the metamorphic, and 
Granitic in its northern half, and the Tertiary in the southern 
half, both of these formations being covered at their line of 
union by the sands and pebble-beds of the Quaternary. 

Muscogee in a similar manner combines the granitic, the 
Cretaceous, and the Quaternary. 

CharUon and Ware represent South-east Georgia. 

Clay County combines Cretaceous and Tertiary, and shows 
the characteristic features of South-west Georgia. 

[ l/Tfc , I I / !>l 

nbw^ IM^ 

DADE COUNTY. A^tT 

The geological formation^of^ADE County represent those 
of all North-west Georgia/which consists of a series of ridges 
running north-east and south-west, with intervening valleys. 
These ridges are the remains of the folds which resulted from 
the earth s contraction at or after the close of the Carbon 
iferous age, since we find the coal-beds lying approximately 
horizontal, or dipping toward the central line of the ridges 
which contain them; while the edges of the ridges are more 
elevated, showing, that as a consequence of the strain upon 
that portion which was most bent and which occupied a posi 
tion about the central line of the valleys, breaks occurred, and 
the eroding effects of water have removed the beds of rock 
which once filled the valleys ; so that in the middle of the 
valleys we find now the lowest and oldest rocks exposed 
to view. 

The coal-measures remain on Sand and Lookout Mountains 

ml^, while they have been removed by denudation, if they 

ever existed, from Taylor s Ridge, Chattoogata Ridge, John s 

Mountain, and the ridge extending north-east from Rome, east 

of and along the S. R. & D. R.R., and the one near Cassville. 

Dade County embraces within its limits ten different 
geological deposits. In the north-west corner of the county 




44 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

(and of the State) we find Sand Mountain, originally a con 
tinuation of Raccoon Mountain in Tennessee, the summit of 
which is composed of sandstone. Below this lies the coal 
four or five feet thick; and this again underlaid by clay 
and shales with other seams of coal ; and beneath these 
coal-shales, we find the subcarboniferous limestones and 
cherts. Through this limestone, as well as the beds above, 
water has found its way through rents and crevices in the 
rocks, and, in making its passage to the Tennessee River, near 
Shell Mound, has washed out Nickajack Cave. 

Near the same station we find the bed of a creek, dry in 
summer and covered with large boulders of sandstone and 
limestone ; and, following this up to its source, we come to 
the brow of the mountain,where the Dade Company s Coal-mine 
has been opened in one gulf, as it is called, and the Castle 
Rock Mine in another. 

There are several of these gulfs, or nearly vertical excava 
tions, made by water, in all of which the coal is exposed 
the Perry, Boston, Tatum, etc. This coal underlies the 
whole of this mountain, and crops out again on the eastern 
side, near Trenton, etc. 

The Dade Coal Company, consisting of ex-Governor Joseph 
E. Brown, John T. Grant, Julius L. Brown, W. C. Merrill, and 
AY. D. Grant, of Atlanta, and Jacob Leaver, of Boston, have 
built a broad-gauge railroad five miles long, from Shell Mound 
on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, to their coke-ovens 
at Cole City (74 in number.) 

These ovens, as well as the freight-cars which carry the coal 
to Chattanooga, and even to Port Royal, S. C., are supplied 
by a narrow-gauge railroad, two miles long, whose cars ascend 
the mountain to near the summit by steam-power, and then, 
drawn by mules, enter the tunnel, at a slight inclination. On 
either side are passages leading to the rooms where 300 con- 
A icts from the State Penitentiary are at work, supplying light 
and warmth and motive-power to the people of the State. 

There is another track now in construction, from near Cole 
City, up another gorge or gulf to the Castle Rock Mine, which 
will soon double the supply of coal, and especially that suitable 
for grates, being harder, and therefore bearing transportation 
better, without crumbling. 



DADE COUNTY COAL BEDS. 45 

The coke made here compares very favorably with that 
made at Connellsville, Pa., and is used in preference at the 
Chattanooga and Atlanta Rolling Mills and at the Bartow 
Furnace, for smelting iron, and at Ward s Diamond Furnace 
for making Ferro-manganese. The company have expended 
$400,000 in opening and equipping this mine. 

The eastern side of this mountain presents a higher cliff, the 
waters of Lookout Creek cutting down, through the beds 
already mentioned, and also through the black Devonian shale, 
the Clinton iron ore, Medina 1 : oftndo tone, Cincinnati shaldH -< 
Trenton limestone, and in the southern end of the valley near 
the Alabama line, the Chazy shaly limestone, r the Quebec 
dolomite atid nhalo; ftiid^ka-^aleifemus sandstone. 

The beds of coal are exposed at several places on the eastern 
side of Sand Mountain, as well as on the western side of Look 
out Mountain. 

Lookout extends from Chattanooga Tenn. to the Alabama 
line, in a south-west course for 20 miles, having its top nearly 
level, with the east and west edges somewhat elevated above 
the middle. A few miles from Chattanooga there is a crescent- 
shaped elevation, called Round Mountain, in which are found 
beds of coal, three or four feet thick, at Le Croy s and 
Greene s. 

This flat region is well adapted to sheep-raising and Irish 
potatoes, and, with the cool breezes and magnificent views, is 
especially attractive as a summer resort. Capt. C. W. Howard, 
celebrated as a scientific agriculturist, has selected this from 
all the State as the most desirable spot to put in practice his 
knowledge of sheep husbandry. 

On the Dade side of this mountain, the coal has been opened 
near the summit of the cliff in Johnson s Gulf, in a vein four or 
five feet thick, and an incline built by which the coal is brought 
down to the foot, and thence by a narrow-gauge railroad 
carried four miles to Rising Fawn Furnace, where 60 improved 
Belgian coke-ovens have been constructed for supplying fuel 
for their 50-ton stack, while the limestone and fossiliferous 
ore in inexhaustible quantities are in sight of the works, and 
a broad-gauge track of one mile delivers the pig iron at Rising 
Fawn Station on the Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad. 

The productive farms of the valley furnish cheap subsist- 



46 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

once for workmen, and the climate leaves nothing to desire 
for residence. The thorough preparation and excellent con 
struction of these works, furnished with the very best 
machinery, mark an era in Iron production in the State. 
They are owned by four New York gentlemen, who have 
expended $600,000 in this enterprise; W. S. Wright, New 
York, President ; Myer Myers, New York, Vice-President ; 
Algernon S. Jarvis, White Plains, N. Y., Treasurer ; Abram D. 
Delmars, Rising Fawn, Secretary. 

The Cherokee Iron Works, built in 1864-5, by Dr. J7 H. 
McLain, of Louisville, and Mr. Brown, of Philadelphia, are 
situated one mile north of Trenton. They were sold in 
April, 1876, to Mr. Amsby, of Philadelphia. The property 
embraces 500 acres of land. 

The >* Phoenix Furnace^ Co. own 1,600 acres of land, and 
the foundation of a stack laid by the Empire Co., of which 
Dr. E. L. Strohecker, of Macon, was President. This property 
was sold for $85,000, and is situated on the A. & C. R.R., 
three miles north of Rising Fawn. 

There are three tan-yards in this valley, which can secure an 
unlimited supply of the best oak-bark. Pace s tan-yard is 
located at Trenton. Col. J. Cooper Nisbit, two miles south of 
Trenton, had a steam tannery, which was burned in 1873. 
Mr. Blevins has a tan-yard of 12 vats, one mile from Rising 
Fawn. 

Dade Valley is well supplied with flour and grist mills. 
Mitchell Pope has one on a creek, two miles north of Morgan- 
ville ; Hook s or Lee s mill, with two run of stone, is at Wild- 
wood ; Wilkerson s mill, w T ith two run of stone, is at Trenton ; 
Silton s mill, with two run of stone, is at Trenton ; Cureton s mill, 
with two run of stone, three miles north of Rising Fawn ; Stevens 
mill, with two run of stone, three miles south of Rising Fawn; 
Blake s mill, with two run of stone, four miles south of Rising 
Fawn. 

Besides the opening from which the Rising Fawn Co. 
obtain coal, it has been found and opened by them on Lot 182. 
There has also been opened the " Hannah Bank," two feet thick, 
on Lot 44. The Phoenix Company opened on the Daniel Lot, 
No. 70 ; also on Lot No. 73. 

In the Trenton Gulf, one half mile below the union 



GEOLOGY OF BARTOW COUNTY. 47 

of the two creeks, which form here a most beautiful water 
fall, coal has been found, 50 feet above the bed of the creek. 
In Forester s Gulf Creek, good coal is found, three feet thick ; 
on Mr. Tatum s land is also found coal on Lot 171. 

Near what is known as the Stevens trail is another outcrop ; 
and on the Sulphur Springs trail is still another. 

BARTOW COUNTY. 

This has been selected as the second typical county of the 
State, for the reason that the Etowah River, which divides it 
into two unequal portions, cuts through (in a direction from 
east to west) the geological formations which strike nearly 
north and south, giving thus a section which shows, at the 
mouth of Stamp Creek, the Ocoee conglomerate of Safford s 
section along the Ocoee River on the Tennessee line, which is 
equivalent to the Acadian of Canada. Then it crosses the 
Chilhowee sandstone of Tennessee, of Potsdam age. 

Next comes the Knox sandstone or Calciferous of New 
York. 

Then the Knox dolomite and shales, or Quebec. 

Then the Maclurea limestone, or Chazy. 

Next comes the Trenton, limestone. 

Then the Nasliville-ef-Oincmnati. 

The geological structure of Bartow County is peculiar, it 
being situated on the line of metamorphic action which has 
given such a variety in the physical features as well as in the 
soils of Georgia. In the north-western portion of the county 
we find the cherty ridges of Silurian age, underlaid by lime 
stone of the same age, both belonging to the lower division 
of that formation, and differing remarkably in one important 
particular as bearing upon the agricultural interest. The 
chert ridges are very dry, in some portions of them no water 
being attainable in wells of ordinary depth, so that, during 
the last summer, farmers in that section were compelled to 
haul water from a distance. The limestone valleys on the 
other hand, abound in springs of the largest size ; that at 
Mr. Lewis s, three miles from Adairsville, furnishing water not 
only for an excellent spring and milkhouse, but, at a short 
distance from its source, for a mill or gin. 



48 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

Next in^order in the geological series comes the sandstone 
which not only furnishes the hearths for furnaces and walls 
for limekilns, but the ores of iron contained in it supply 
every variety of the best brown hematite for a tough iron, 
suited to the manufacture of ploughs and trace-chains, and 
from which the Atlanta Rolling Mill is now making steel- 
capped rails to supply the railroad transportation needed by this 
rich county; which has no less than three well-equipped roads 
traversing it already, while two others are in contemplation. 
Beds of manganese are also found, which are used, in combi 
nation with the iron, for the beautiful white crystalline, 
mirror-like pig-iron called by the Germans 1 Spiegeleisen. J In 
this belt also we find an immense bed of Baryta used in white 
paint. Slate also is found within the borders of Bartow, on 
the slopes of the Pine Log Mountains, which form the dividing 
ridge between her and Cherokee, and whose rugged summit 
Bear Mountain towers aloft above all the surrounding country, 
and on which the United States Coast Survey has established 
a station for the triangulation of the continent. 

Beyond this high land we find the quartz-veins of the 
metamorphic region abounding in gold ; also, in the ridges, 
the Itacolumite or flexible sandstone, the well-known matrix 
of the Diamond. Rich and rare as these precious jewels are, 
they do not so reward the laborer as the rolling red lands 
around Cartersville, or the deep and fertile alluvial soils of the 
Etowah, from which the inhabitants have always drawn a 
bountiful support since the days of the Mound-Builders, who 
have left their monument and the bones of their forefathers 
on the choicest of all these farms, that of Lewis Tumlin. 

Churches and schools and villages are dotted over the surface 
of this county. 

The vegetation of this county is varied as the geological 
formations, and the kinds of soil resulting from the decay of dif 
ferent rocks. Of forest growth, we find the Walnut, Hickory, 
Ash, Elm, " Poplar," Maple, Sycamore, Wild Cherry, Sweet 
Gum, Oaks (White, Spanish, Black Jack), Chestnut, Pine 
(short leaf), and Persimmon. 

This is an incomplete list of the woods of this county, as is 
that of Fulton which follows. 



GEOLOGY OF BARTOW AND HABEKS1IAM. 49 



PULTON COUNTY. 

This county presents little variety in its geology or topog 
raphy, having only a small representation of the Cincinnati 
gneisses and the reddish and gray hydro-mica schists, with 
some outcrops of the Steatite and Itacolumite of Quebec age. 

.The general surface of the county is hilly and rolling ; 
though in some places the granite masses project above the 
surface. Some of the Quebec rocks in the northern part of 
the county are gold-bearing ; and in one place in the Cincin 
nati group, large quantities of Iron Pyrite with some copper 
have been found. Asbestus in considerable quantity has been 
mined within three miles of the city of Atlanta. 

As a railroad centre, its chief city, and the Capital of the 
State (Atlanta), has been located from geological causes. It 
is the lowest point of the Chattahoochee Ridge which could 
be conveniently crossed from Cartersville the termination of 
the Appalachian range of mountains to the Atlantic. Its 
position on the water-shed between the Flint and Ocmulgee 
Rivers, and also on that of the Chattahoochee and the streams 
flowing into the Atlantic, have made it a great entrepot. The 
timber supply of this county consists of Red Oak, White 
Oak, Post Oak, Black Jack Oak, Hickory, Chestnut, Poplar, 
Dogwood, Sassafras, Beech, Maple, and Red Elm. 



HABERSHAM COUNTY. 

Habersham may serve as a characteristic county of the 
metamorphic section of the State. It extends from the South 
Carolina line to the Chattahoochee River from east to west, 
and from the Blue Ridge to the Chattahoochee Ridge from 
north to south. 

Tray Mountain, 4,435 feet in height, is on the northern 
border, and Currahee, 1,740 feet in height, near the southern. 
The Tallulah River forms the boundary between Habersham 
and Rabun, near the mouth of which are the most noted falls 
in the State. 

Toccoa Falls are near the Air-Line Railroad in the southern 
part of the county. 



50 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The Air-Line Railroad traverses the county from east to 
west, and the Elberton Air-Line Railroad is graded from 
Toccoa City southward, through Franklin, Hart, and Elbert 
counties, to Elberton. 

There are represented in the county three different geolog 
ical periods. The Tallulah Mountain consists principally of 
the sandstone of Potsdam age ; the Blue Ridge and the Chat- 
tahoochee Ridge are of Cincinnati age ; the valleys between 
are of Quebec age. 

The natural growth on the land is generally a good indica 
tion of its value for agriculture. It may be, however, that 
the trees send their roots so deep into the earth that they 
derive sufficient nourishment from a depth to which the roots 
of small grain plants may not penetrate, while the surface may 
be so covered with quartz fragments that no material is fur 
nished for the grain sowed upon it. In a large portion of the 
metamorphic region, the soft hydro-mica schists have been 
penetrated by veins of quartz ; and, during the long period 
of erosion to which they have been subjected, the soft mate 
rial has been removed and the insoluble quartz fragments from 
the vein have fallen down until they finally almost entirely cover 
the surface. The same result has been reached in other 
formations, where a hard material, and one not easily decom 
posed, is found interstratified with one which is soft and easily 
disintegrated by atmospheric action. 

The Itacolumite and sandstones, by their crumbling, furnish 
a light silicious soil, which produces well, so long as the veg 
etable matter which has fallen upon it, by its decay, furnishes 
the necessary nutriment ; but so soon as this is exhausted, 
they become quite barren and are easily washed. 

The limestone rarely comes to the surface in this section ; 
indeed a few spots in Hall and Habersham are the only 
places where it has been found. It has, however, once existed 
on the surface in a band, continuing along the whole northern 
slope of the Chattahoochee Ridge ; and although now covered 
up by other rocks, the remains of that portion which has been 
removed by denudation from this belt have given character to 
a large portion of the soil, and the approximate locality may 
be distinguished by a better growth of forest-trees. 

In some portions of Habersham, the impure limestones of the 



HABERSHAM COUNTY FORMATIONS. 51 

Quebec group generally dolomitic have been converted by 
the metamorphism which has affected this whole region into 
soapstone and serpentine, and sometimes into calcareous mica 
schists ; and, in the decomposition of all these rocks, an 
abundance of lime and magnesia is furnished to the soil. 

In the eastern part of Habersham, a great portion of the 
surface consists of large granite veins ; and these by their 
decomposition furnish a soil rich in potash, having the proper 
proportion of sand and clay. 

The Hornblende schists decompose into a reddish clay soil 
which is quite fertile and lasts well. 

Trap dikes occur near Toccoa City, generally in the form of 
exceedingly hard and tough, very dark and heavy rounded 
masses, which it is difficult to break with the hammer ; some 
times these seem to be less perfectly solidified, and are gradu 
ally acted upon by the atmosphere, so that the iron in them is 
converted into the peroxide on the outside, and the change 
may be seen gradually progressing toward the centre of the 
mass, until finally the whole becomes soft and gradually 
breaks down into a rich red soil, containing a good proportion 
of potash. 

While Potash, Lime, and Phosphoric acid are recognized as 
the constituents which contribute most to the fertility of the 
soil, and Alumina and Silica are looked upon as the basis of all 
durable soils, it is a noticeable fact in Georgia that the red 
soils those containing a large percentage of hydrated per 
oxide of iron are among the most fertile and durable. This 
is partly due to the fact that these red soils always con 
tain, a good proportion of clay, which acts as a retainer of 
moisture and an absorbent of ammonia and other soluble salts. 
There is also usually a good supply of lime in such soils. 

StilL it seems that the iron itself, although entering only to a 
slight degree into the composition of the ash of plants, exerts a 
beneficial influence, physically, on the soil, by its absorbent 
properties like those of alumina, and, by reason of its dark 
color, is an absorbent of the sun s rays, and hence promotes 
germination. In addition, it may exert some influence on 
plants similar to that which it is known to have on animals. 
Although but a small amount of iron is found in the human 
frame, and that principally in the blood, yet no fact is more 



52 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

clearly recognized by physicians than that there can be no 
health so long as the blood is wanting in the red corpuscles 
which give color to the blood ; and no medicines are more 
frequently used for their tonic effect than the various prepara 
tions of iron. 

MUSCOGEE COUNTY. 

The Indian nation whose name is perpetuated in that of 
this county, according to tradition, gave the name, meaning 
Creek, to the country north and east of the Chattahoochee (or 
flowered stone, Ckatto-hoche, from a rock said to be found 
above the falls in the river), on account of the number of 
streams in that country. The whites have well located the 
name in this county, as the water-power furnished by the 
falls near Columbus is as important to them as were the creeks 
to the Aborigines. 

The soils of the county are not generally fertile, since the 
upper portion is hilly and made of very old and hard rocks. 
Below these, the surface is covered with the sand of the 
newest or drift formation. In the southern portion of the 
county, sandy marls are found in the banks of the creeks. 

There may be distinguished four kinds of soil in the county: 
Post Oak lands, with Hickory, White Oak, and Pine, produc 
ing per acre 15 bushels of Corn, 7 to 10 of Wheat, 800 to 1,000 
Ibs. of Cotton ; Red uplands, 12 to 15 bushels of Corn and 
500 to 800 Ibs. of Cotton, with a growth of Hickory, Red 
Oak, and Pine ; Bottom lands are timbered with Hickory, 
White Oak, Red Oak, Poplar, Gum, Beech, and Walnut; and 
Piney woods with the long-leaf Pine, producing five to seven 
bushels of Corn, and 300 to 700 Ibs. of Cotton per acre. 

ESTIMATED AGGREGATE OF AVATEB-POWEBS OF MUSCOGEE 

COUNTY. 

Chattahoochee River, from the top of Clapp s Dam to the 
boat-landing in Columbus, has, at low water, about 30,000 
horse-powers. Above this point to Harris County, there is prob 
ably 12,000 horse-powers. This stream represents the water- 
powers of the county. Upatoi and Bull Creeks each have 
a considerable flow of water in them, but their natural fall is 



OKEFINOKEE SWAMP. 53 

very little, and they fill with sand so rapidly that it makes 
them undesirable for manufacturing purposes. 

On the north side of the county, there are numerous 
branches, which descend rapidly from the metamorphic forma 
tions into the level sandy or post-tertiary country below. 
These can be used to advantage for driving light machinery 
requiring from two to twelve or eighteen horse-power. The 
aggregate available horse-power of this county is between 
40,000 and 50,000. 

CHARLTOK AND WARE COUNTIES. 

These counties, in the south-eastern corner of the State, 
present features entirely different from those of the four coun 
ties already described. They are bounded by the Suwanee, 
Satilla, and St. Mary s Rivers and the Florida line, and embrace 
nearly the whole of the Okefinokee Swamp, besides large 
areas of sandy land covered in part with wire-grass, and in 
part by long-leaf pine and palmetto. The upper portion is 
crossed by two railroads which intersect near Tebeauville 
viz., the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad, extending from Savan 
nah, to Bainbridge in the south-western corner of the State, 
and the Brunswick and Albany Railroad, extending from the 
fine harbor of Brunswick, west to Albany on the Flint River. 
These roads depend mainly for their freight on the boundless 
forests of long-leaf pine which lie on either side of them along 
the whole extent. Immense quantities of lumber are yearly 
carried to the seaports by these roads, and thence shipped to 
Northern, European, and South American markets. Turpen 
tine plantations have been opened near most of the stations, 
and the distilleries produce thousands of barrels of turpentine 
and resin. 

The Satilla and St. Mary s Rivers also furnish outlets for 
great rafts of lumber of every size, from whole trunks for 
masts, down to the smallest timber for shingles and laths. 
Steam mills are at almost every railroad-station, and quite a 
number along the rivers. 

There are three well-marked and characteristic soils in this 
section : (1) a light, sandy, thin, poor soil, covered with saw 
palmetto, and full of roots ; (2) the loose, dark, sandy soil, 



54 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

containing a large amount of vegetable matter ; and (3) the 
reddish, clayey soil. The first is adapted to the production 
of Potatoes and Ground Peas ; Cotton is successfully culti 
vated in the second ; while the third excels in the Sugar- 
Cane. Corn yields wonderfully on the darkest soils, especially 
when fertilized by the black swamp-muck, which is found in 
inexhaustible quantities in the Jjoncls and small swamps scat 
tered here and there throughout the section. The Okefinokee 
contains, over a large portion of its bed, this rich vegetable 
mould, sometimes to the depth of four feet. Along the banks 
of the Satilla River, there crops out a pure white marl, almost 
entirely consisting of carbonate of lime, which readily decom 
poses this muck, and fits it for plant food. 

A considerable area in the swamp bears cypress-trees, which 
are nowhere excelled in size, one of which would yield thou 
sands of shingles ; and there is the Pine and the white and red 
Bays. The last of these take a fine polish, and would appar 
ently be valuable for furniture and cabinet-making. The 
islands in the swamp Floyd s, Billy s, Honey, and Black Jack 
are covered with pine and palmetto on their higher portions, 
where the soil is white and sandy, but still produces a luxu 
riant growth of long, tender grass, on which deer and wild 
cattle keep fat the year round. 

On the borders of these islands there is a low hammock land 
which sustains a vigorous growth of Magnolia, Oak, etc., in a 
rich, sandy soil. Outside of this are dense thickets of small 
shrubs, almost impenetrable, except where wildcats and bears 
have made their trails ; and beyond these thickets which 
sometimes give place to a perfect mat of bamboo briers 
10 feet high, many of them an inch in diameter and armed 
with thorns which stick like daggers, we find an open marsh 
filled with long rushes and water-lilies, whose thick roots 
afford the only support for the feet in wading through the soft 
ooze and mud, which yields to the weight of a man, so that he 
sinks to the arm-pits in many places. Many small islands and 
clumps of trees dot these " prairies," as they are called ; and 
these are generally surrounded by a floor of moss, which is 
sometimes firm enough to hold one s weight, and again forms 
a floating surface over the water ; and while it does not break 
through beneath the feet, one can see it sink and rise for 10 or 



OKEFIXOKEE SWAMP. 55 

20 feet around at every step ; hence its name Oke-fi-no-kee, 
or Trembling Earth. The Cassino, Holly, etc., are the principal 
trees. In some portions, Live Oak is found on drier spots. 

In the prairies are many open holes, free from vegetation 
and several feet in depth ; and in these are found alliga 
tors, sometimes 10 to 12 feet in length ; while otters are 
more numerous along the streams which connect the main 
open prairies with Billy s Lake and the Suwanee River. This 
lake is about four miles in length, from 100 to 300 feet in 
width, and from four to eight feet in depth, perfectly clear (at 
the time of our visit in November), and abounding in the 
finest trout and jack fish, which even spring into the boat at 
night when a light is carried. In summer, hundreds of alligators 
may be seen sporting their unwieldy forms, while ducks and 
other water-fowl are found in the greatest numbers. Just at 
dusk, white herons may be seen settling in the trees on 
the banks of the small lakes, until they look like a solid white 
wall. Occasionally a goose is heard, uttering his melancholy 
croak as he flaps his broad wings just out of reach of the 
hunter s shot. A few squirrels are seen in the more open 
woods on the islands, while owls make the night hideous 
with their hooting. Some large moccasins are found in the 
morass. 

The general level of the swamp is from 114 to 120 feet 
above tide-water at Trader s Hill on the St. Mary s, and the 
level on the line >eii by Mr. Locke directly across the swamp, 
from Mixon s Ferry on Suwanee River to Trader s Hill, shows 
that almost all of the fall from the swamp to the river is 
within two miles of the eastern border. Indeed, there is only 
a narrow ridge running for miles between the swamp and 
Spanish Creek, and it is reported by the citizens that in times 
of very high water in the swamp, it actually empties a part 
of the excess of water across the ridge into the creek named. 

A partial survey shows that there would be no engineering 
difficulty in draining the whole swamp perfectly, and rendering 
available the enormous amount of cypress timber as well as 
thousands of tons of muck, which, with the aid of the Satilla 
marls, would convert the sandy as well as the red-clay lands in 
the border, into market-gardens. 

Oranges and Bananas are produced to some extent, but the 



56 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

same care has not been devoted to them as in the neighboring 
counties of Florida. 

Near Waycross, experiments have been made showing that 
the soils of that region are admirably adapted to the culture 
of fruits, figs and grapes. Watermelons can be grown in any 
quantity desired, and of any size that the consumer may 
choose. 

This region of country was formerly looked upon as utterly 
worthless, so hat when the citizens of Savannah projected a 
road through it to the Gulf, the name of " Cuyler s Desert" was 
applied to it. 

I have seen no section of Georgia in which the people seem 
to secure a comfortable supply of food with less effort, and 
can see no reason why the whole country may not be made 
equal, if not superior, to that section of Prussia where Fred 
erick the Great founded the city of Berlin, from which capital, 
within this decade, terms have been dictated to the continent 
of Europe. There is the greatest similarity in the soil and 
topography of the two sections, and should the tide of German 
emigration be turned hither, there would soon be realized to 
them the comforts and pleasures of the Fatherland. 

In the continuation of this sandy belt toward the west, near 
Thomasville, a German, Mr. John Stark, has made, in one 
year, 1,800 gallons of wine, which, to my taste, equals the 
famed vintage of 1857 on the Rhine, and his sparkling wines 
will bear favorable comparison with Longworth s Catawba 
from the vine-clad hills of the Ohio. 

Nowhere in Louisiana have I seen the Sugar-Cane grow 
more luxuriantly, or yield a greater amount of saccharine juice 
than in this same belt of country. 

For sheep farms, the grazing is naturally supplied, and no 
shelter would be needed in winter. 

As an evidence of the healthfulness of the region, the State 
Board of Health has searched in vain for a practising physi 
cian in a whole county. 

SURVEY OF OKEFTNOKEE SWAMP. 

Colonel R. L. Hunter, on October 21st, 1857, made a 
report to Governor H. V. Johnson, of a " survey of Okefino- 



OKEFINOKEE SWAMP. 57 

kee Swamp, with a view to ascertain the practicability of its 
drainage, the cost of the same, etc." 

This survey began on December 3d, 1856, and ended April 
3d, 1857, and was conducted with the assistance of M. B. Grant 
and C. M. Forsyth, and cost $3,260, including partial pay 
of the engineer in charge. There was furnished to the 
Governor a map of the swamp, with the elevation around the 
whole swamp and lines of ditches, which it was estimated 
would drain the swamp at a cost of $1,067,250. This map 
was lost during the war, and it is only due to the enterprise 
of Colonel E. Y. Clarke, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, 
that a copy of Colonel Hunter s report has been hunted up and 
preserved, which, with verbal information furnished by Colonel 
Hunter himself, has materially aided the preparation of a 
map of the swamp. 

On November 4th, 1875, by direction of Governor J. M. 
Smith, the party of the Geological Survey operating in Southern 
Georgia, joined the " Constitution Expedition" organized by 
the proprietors of the paper of that name in Atlanta, and 
remained until December 14th. A line of levels was run by 
Mr. C. A. Locke, Engineer of the ^Survey, ^ from Mixon s 
Ferry on Suwanee River to Trader s Hill on St. Mary s, show^ 
ing the following elevations referred to ebb tide : 

Feet. 

Trader s Hill, on St. Mary s River 

Water Surface at Mixon s Ferry 107.306 

Bench B, in Pocket 122.097 

" D, " 120,373 

" F, " 121.269 

Swamp between Pocket and Jones Island 116.517 

Jones Island 121.401 

Swamp between Jones Island and Billy s Island 116.416 

Billy s Island 118.009 

Bench J, Billy s Island 123.839 

Camp Lee, Billy s Bench 125.637 

Billy s Lake, Water Surface 115.991 

Swamp E of Billy s Island 118.995 

Two miles from Billy s Island on Little Trail 119.326 

Prairie West, Side-water Surface 121.241 

Roddenberry s House, East side 153.351 

Long Branch, two miles from Roddenberry s House 55.092 : 

Trader s Hill 79.045 

Water Surface, St. Mary s River ... . 5.000 > 



58 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

A map was prepared by Mr. M. T. Singleton, Assistant 
Engineer of the Geological Survey, showing the location of 
this line, as well as of other lines run by the compass and 
measured through the swamp by Mr. Locke and Mr. Pendletbn, 
from Black Jack Island in the southern portion to Honey 
Island south of Billy s Island ; then to Billy s Island (called 
Pendleton s trail, from Mr. Charles Pendleton, of Valdosta, who 
accompanied the party); thence to Floyd s Island north-east ; 
and thence north-west to Hickory Hammock, near the northern 
border, by Mr. Singleton and Mr. Loughridge, called Haines 
trail from Mr. George Haines of Jesup, who furnished the 
laborers who cut out the way. 

On this map are also entered the lines run by Colonel Hunter, 
and the residences around the swamp, so far as ascertained. 
I am indebted to Colonel Hunter for the following facts 
from his survey : 

The line of levels which was run around the whole swamp, 
and connected with the water in the St. Mary s River near 
Trader s Hill, furnishes the following information in regard to 
the elevation of the surface at different points : 

The highest part of the swamp is its northern extremity, 
where it is 126 feet above tide-water. Coming south, in six 
miles it descends five feet, and then in thirteen miles from 
the last point it descends only one and a half feet on the east 
side it being at that point (Mr. Mattox s) 120 feet above tide 
water ; while at an opposite point on the west side (the mouth 
of Surveyor s Creek) it is only 116J feet. 

A nearly uniform descent continues from Mr. Mattox s to 
the south-east corner of the swamp, where the elevation is 116J 
feet, while near Ellicott s Mound, where the branch of the St. 
Mary s runs out of the swamp it is only 111 feet. 

From the mouth of Surveyor s Creek to the extreme 
western angle of the swamp, it falls scarcely any, but on turn 
ing eastward toward the Suwanee River, it gradually descends, 
and where that stream comes out of the swamp it is only about 
110 feet above tide. At the north-east point of the Pocket 
it is 11 4^ feet. From that point it falls toward the place 
where Cypress Creek runs out, where it is about 111^ feet. 
Then it rises to 118J feet when half way to the St. Mary s, and 
gradually falls again to it. 



AGE AND HEIGHT OP CEKTAIN MOUNTAINS. 59 



ELEVATIONS. 

The mountains of Georgia are of different geological ages, 
and composed of different rocks on their summits. 

The most ancient and the least known are of Potsdam age, 
and consist of heavy sandstone masses, the Cohutta being a 
representative of the western prong of the Blue Ridge chain, 
and Tallulah and Yonah of the Eastern prong. 

Second in age we have Bell, Sawnee, Graves , Jack s, 
Alcova, Pine, and Oak Mountains of Quebec age, and con 
sisting largely of Quartzite, Itacolumite, and Sandstone. 

Third in age are the Blue Ridge proper, represented by 
the high points of Rabun Bald, Enota, Blood, Amicalola, 
and Grassy Mountains, and the Chattahoochee Ridge, with 
its highest peaks at Mount Airy and Currahee, and consisting 
on their tops of hard hornblendic Gneiss of Cincinnati age. 

Fourth in age are Sand, Lookout, and Pigeon Mountains, 
which are covered with a heavy bed of sandstone of carboni 
ferous age. ^Missioaary-, Taylor s, John s, and Chattoogata 
Ridges are of "t^trebco cherts. JYltL* <**^ I-KL^/V>*-- 

The following are the elevations (by U. S. Coast-Survey 
measurements) of Drominent mountains in North Georgia : 

Enota, in Towns County, is 4,796 feet high. 

Rabun Bald, in Rabun, is 4,718 " " 

Blood, in Union, is 4,468 " " 

Tray, in Habersliam, is 4,435 " 

Cohutta, in Fannin, is 4,155 " " 

Yonah, in White, is 3,168 " 

Grassy, in Pickens, is 3,090 " " 

Walker s, in Lumpkin, is 2,614 " " 

Pine LOOT, in Bartow, is 2,347 " " 

Sawnee, in Forsyth, is 1,968 " " 

Kennesaw, in Cobb, is 1,809 " " 

Stone Mountain, in De Kalb, is 1,686 " 

The Capitol Tower in Atlanta, Fulton County, is 1,164 " *** 

Academy Hill, in Gwinnett, is 1,139 " " 

Alcova, in Walton, is 1,088 

Besides these easily recognized mountain ranges, there are 
other elevated ridges which form the water-sheds, separating 
the drainage areas of the different rivers. 




60 HA-NTKROOTv OF GEOKGTA. 

The Blue Ridge the highest mountain chain divides the 
waters flowing into the Tennessee from those of the Savannah 
flowing to the Atlantic, on the one hand, and those flowing 
to the Chattahoochee and the Gulf of Mexico on the other. 
^The Cohutta Mountains separate the Tennessee waters from 
those forming the Coosa, and the Dug Down Mountains sep 
arate these latter from those of the Tallapoosa, which, in 
Alabama, unites to form the river of that name ; and in like 
manner the Kennesaw range separates those of the Etowah 
from the Chattahoochee. 

Another ridge on which is built the Atlanta and West Point 
Railroad separates the Flint from the Chattahoochee; and 
still another, on which the Atlanta and Macon Railroad runs 
for 100 miles, separates the Flint from the Ocmulgee, and 
divides near Vienna into two prongs, one of which separates 
the Flint from the Withlacoochee, Allapaha, and Suwanee ; the 
other separating these from the Satilla and St. Mary s, and 
extends south-east in che direction of the peninsula of 
Florida. 

It is noteworthy here that the actual water-shed has not 
been determined ; for the line of direction which no doubt 
once was continuous by the south-west corner -of the Okefi- 
nokee Swamp is not now the water-shed, but a great curve is 
made, embracing the whole of the swamp in the Suwanee 
drainage, excepting a small portion in the south-east, which 
furnishes one feeder to the St. Mary s River. It then returns 
to a point in the line of the main direction near the Florida 
line, and continues south-east into that State. 

The Georgia Railroad from Augusta to Union Point is 
on another ridge dividing the Ogeechee (a tributary of the 
Altamaha), and Brier Creek (a tributary of the Savannah), 
from Little River, another tributary of the Savannah ; while 
from Union Point to Athens and Bellton the Air-Line Railroad 
divides the Broad River of the Savannah system from the 
Oconee of the Altamaha system. 

The Altamaha River system has for its tributaries the 
Ogeechee, Oconee, and Ocmulgee ; and these three receive, 
above the line of railroad from Augusta to Macon which runs 
along the southern border of the metamorphic rocks, a multi 
tude of tributaries, which form a perfect network south of 



WATER-POWERS DRAINAGE SYSTEM. 61 

the Chattahoochee Ridge, between the Atlanta and Macori 
Ridge, and the Bellton, Athens, and Union Point Ridge. 

As the difference of level between the two limits north 
and south, mentioned above, will average 700 feet, and the 
distance not much over 70 miles, and the streams run directly 
across the different formations alternately made of hard 
gneisses and granites and soft hydromica schists and friable 
sandstones, numberless waterfalls are produced, and an almost 
incalculable water-power is furnished. This indeed is the case 
across this whole central belt of the State ; limited by the 
Chattahoochee Ridge, on which the Air Line and the Atlanta 
and West Point Railroads run, on the north ; and Columbus, 
Macon, and Augusta roads on the south limit of the meta- 
rnorphic region, embracing a territory 200 miles long and 70 
miles wide, or 14,000 square miles, with a slope averaging 10 
feet per mile, and in a region where the rainfall averages 50 
inches per annum, and where the climate is mild and equable 
the whole year. 

No country in the world offers greater natural advantages 
than this section of Georgia for manufacturing establishments, 
especially for Cotton, which grows in abundance, and in easy 
reach of railroad transportation at any point no less than 10 
different railroads crossing this territory, north and south, 
and east and west. 

Another remarkable feature in the drainage system is 
noticeable on the southern slope of the Blue Ridge, where the 
range averages 3,000 feet, and declines to an average of 600 
feet in the Chattahoochee Valley ; and the streams run directly 
across the gold-belt, which is continuous and inexhaustible, 
only needing the supply of water from the ridge, properly 
directed and controlled, to return a yield of the precious metal 
which should satisfy the most avaricious stockholder in a 
mining company. 

The following are elevations of points on the lines of rail 
roads in Georgia : 



HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 



Western and Atlantic (State) JZaitroad from Atlanta to 
Chattanooga. 

^TATrnw DISTANCE. ELEVATION. 

MILES. FEET. 

Atlanta 1,050 

Chattaboochee River 8 762 

Bridge 8 832 

Marietta 20 1,132 

Railroad Summit 23 1,156 

Kennesaw Mountain 23 1,828 

Acworth 34 932 

Allatoona Creek 805 (about) 

Allatooua 875 (about) 

Etowali River 47 696 

Bridge 771 

Kingston 60 721 

Adairsville 70 723 

Calhoun 80 653 

Oosienaula River 85 623 

Bridge 655 

Dalton 100 773 

Tunnel Hill 107 859 

Summit Ridge 032 

Ringgold... 114 776 

Tennessee Line 714 

Chattanooga 138 663 

Macon and Western Railroad (Atlanta to Macon). 

MILES. FEET. 

Atlanta 1,050 

Rough and Ready 11 1,004 

Jonesboro 21| 905 

Fosterville 28 960 

Griffin 48 975 

Milner 54 863 

Barnesville 61 875 

Forsyth 77 735 

Prattsville 85 625 

Depot at Macon 102 414 

Low Water, Ocmulgee River 263 



ELEVATIONS ON RAILROAD LINES. 63 



Central Railroad (Macon to Savannah). 

DISTANCE. ELEVATION. 

STATIOK. MILBS. FEET. 

Ocmulgee, low water 263 

East Macon Depot 297 

Griswold 10 464 

Gordon 20 343 

MacDonald 30J 245 

Emmit 3S 210 

Oconee River 186 

Oconee 42i 221 

Tennille 55 

Davisborough 67f 291 

Spears , . . . 78 238 

Sebastopol 90J 190 

Heradon lOOi 174 

Millen 110J 158 

Paramore s Hill 233 

Scarborough 120 148 

Ogeecliee 129 106 

Halcyondale 140* 110 

Little Ogeecliee, in Scriven County 106 

Egypt 150i 126 

Guyton 160* 77 

Eden 170J 34 

Station No. 1 181| 19 

Depot at Savannah 32 

Macon and Brunswick Railroad. 

A profile of this road could not be obtained, the original 
notes having been lost. 

Atlanta and West Point Railroad. 

ELEVATION. 
FEET. 

Atlanta 1,050 

East Point 1,062 

Fairburn 1,048 

Palmetto 1,039 

Newnan 985 

Grantville 892 

Hogansville 768 

Lagrange 778 

West Point 620 

Chattahoochee River 600 



64 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



Atlanta and Richmond Air Line Railroad (from Atlanta to 
Tugalo River). 

<?-PATTmi DISTANCE. ELEVATION. 

STATION - MILES. FEET. 

Atlanta 1,050 

Doraville 15 1 ,070 

Norcross 20 1,050 

Suwanee 31 1,027 

Buford 37 1,207 

Flowery Branch 44 1,122 

Gainesville 53 1,222 

Bellton 67 1,342 

Mt. Airy 80 1,588 

" (by U. S. Coast Survey) 1,610 

Toccoa C3 1,040 

Georgia Railroad (Atlanta to Augusta). 

G _., DISTANCE. ELEVATION. 

STATION - MILES. FEET. 

Atlanta 1,050 

Decatur 6i 1,049 

Stone Mt 15f 1,055 

Litlionia 24 954 

Conyers 30f 909 

Yellow River 670 (about) 

Covington 41 763 

Ulcofauliatcb.ee 674 (about) 

Social Circle 51$ 890 

Rutledge 59 728 

Madison 68 696 

Buckliead 75| 642 

Oconee River 514 (about) 

Greensboro 88 627 

Union Point 95 674 

Crawfordville 106f 618 

Gumming 114J 647 

Camak 124 613 

Thomson 133* 531 

Bearing 142 489 

Berzelia 150i 517 

Bel-air 161 324 

Augusta Depot , 147 

Savannah River 119 

Hamburg Depot 152 



ELEVATIONS ON RAILKOAD LINES. 65 



South Western Railroad (Macon to Albany and Fort Games). 

STATION. FEET. 

Macon Depot 332 

Tobesofkee Creek Swamp 275 

" " Track 290 

" Bridge 295 

Bridge between Tobesofkee and Echaconnee Summit 379 

Bridge proper 390 

Seago s 360 

H Byron s 513 

2 Powersville 385 

Fort Valley 528 

Ridge at Stapp s Quarter beyond Indian Creek 505 

Uniform Table-land to Marsliallville 491 

Winchester 463 

Gradual descent to Flint River Bridge ... 290 

Oglethorpe 299 

Camp Creek Bridge 306 

Anderson ville 394 

White Water Creek Culvert 361 

Stewart s Turnout , 474 

Americus 360 

Smithville 332 

Kincliafoonee Bridge 275 

Brown s Station 369 

Dawson 352 

Grave s Turnout 350 

Nock way Bridge 292 

Ward s Station 392 

Bridge beyond Ward s 415 

Pacbitla Creek Bridge 342 

Cuthbert Depot 446 

J unction 484 

Morris Station 242 

Colman s 391 

Fort Gaines Depot 163 

" Bridge 190 (about) 



Macon and Augusta Railroad. 



ST.TZOK. 

E. Macon .............................................. 285 

Low water, Ocmulgee River ............................ 241 

Wolf Creek.. , 415 



66 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



ELEVATION. 



STATION. FEET SURFACE 

Commissioner s Creek 422 

Summit between Com. and Fishing Creek 493 

Fortville 459 

Fishing Creek 373 

McCrary s 330 

Camp 231 

Milledgeville 264 

Tobler s Creek 255 285 

Oconee River 269 214 

Rocky Creek 350 315 

Dry Pond Summit 593 648 

TownCreek 575 540 

Sparta 545 

Two Mile Branch 488 458 

Little Ogeechee 485 440 

Culverton 537 

Dry Creek 488 453 

Fulsom s Creek 375 365 

Ogeechee River 375 

Long Creek 348 313 

School -house Summit 525 550 

Rocky Comfort 455 415 

Golden Creek 453 428 

Warrenton Depot 488 



ELEVATIONS IN GEORGIA, ASCERTAINED BY JOHN E. THOMES, 
C.E., IN MAKING A UNITED STATES RAILWAY SURVEY, FROM 
THE TENNESSEE RIVER THROUGH FISHER S GAP, IN SAND 
MOUNTAIN, ALABAMA, TO THE ATLANTIC COAST OF GEORGIA, 
IN 1875. 

The line of this survey enters Georgia in the neighborhood 
of the Old Burnt Village in Troup County, crosses the Thom- 
aston branch of the M. & W. R.R., passes through Culloden 
in Monroe, Knoxville in Crawford, crosses the Ocraulgee 
above Hawkinsville, and passes through Eastman in Dodge 
County, and from there nearly follows the line of the M. & B. 
R.R. to Brunswick. The length of this line from the Tennes 
see River to Brunswick is 412 miles, over 250 of which is in 
Georgia. The elevations in feet above the sea level are as fol 
lows : 



ELEVATIONS ON RAILROAD LINES. 67 



STATIONS. 

Chattalioocliee River ..... ................................... 674 

Maple Creek ................................................ 745 

Mountain Creek .......................................... 743 

St. Cloud Road ........................................... 861 

A. & W. P. R.R ............................................. 930 

Flint River ................................................. 697 

Concord ..................................................... 804 

Elkins Creek .............................................. 711 

Powder Creek .............................................. 724 

Potato Creek ................ . .............................. 669 

Thomaston Branch R.R ..................................... 804 

Tobler s Creek ................... .......................... 661 

Culloden ................................................... 696 

Knoxville ................................................. 640 

Rich Hill ................................................... 619 

Mill Creek .................................................. 504 

Muscogee & S. W. R.R ...................................... 478 

Ocmulgee River (low water) ................................. 214 

Hawkinsville Branch M. & B. R.R ............................ 336 

Limestone Creek ............................................ 250 

M. & B. R.R., 134th mile P .................................. 391 

Eastman ................................................... 356 

McRae Station .............................................. 224 

Sugar Creek ................................................ 103 

Lumber City .............................................. 147 

Ocmulgee River (low water) ................................. 98 

Hazlehurst ................................................. 259 

Carter s Creek .............................................. 152 

Coleman s Creek ............................................ 146 

Boggy Creek ............................................... 93 

Satilla ..................................................... 87 

Atlantic and G. R.R ......................................... 118 

Pinholloway River .......................................... 39 

Buffalo Swamp ............................................. 25 

Ten-mile Creek ............................................. 25 

Brunswick Depot ........................................... 16 



On this line, Eastman is 112 miles, and Culloden 212 miles 
from Brunswick. 



68 



HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 



BY COUNTIES. 


1 




be 2 

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1= S 11* | 


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W 


p^nsuK,,,,^ 


ill 




Jj 




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3 




CRIPTI 


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siq^ qjiAv un?a.ns 


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w 


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r\ 

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pi?oq ojBratxojddy 


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p^oq 

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pt?9q 
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: 5 


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H 


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o 

I 


Habersham Line 
Homer and Mt. . 


C5 <1^! r^O^S -sO.A-i S* 










3 


5 


: : : 


j : : : bi. - : : - : 


M 
PH 


I 

a 


BANKS COUNTY. 
Broad River 

Grove River. . . . 
Hudson River. .. 


K^ ty 2 * * ^ ^ I * ^ 

1 jN J * IN * 1 

c to "S "E o> PH j tJ , 
^O +3 OOfM KS PQ 



WATER-POWERS IN GEORGIA. 



69 





Very low. 










Estimated. 






Low flat banks. 




1 


















2 




o 




















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a ^ S 


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570.00 


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: 




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4 




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5 


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3 








w 




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s S 


At mouth 
At mouth of All 

Mouth 

u 


Kingston 
Near mouth 


2 l / 2 miles from D 


s : 


i 


02 

"o 


Macon 
7 miles, Macon. 


Freeman s Mill. 


Waynesborongh 


Shell Bluff 
Sapp s Mill 


1J4 miles south 


3 miles, Carrollt 
4J4" 
1 mile above mo 






















: 










-M 












N 


j 


; : ; 


i! si 

a _ &H ^ 


Two-Run Creek.. 
Conaseena Creek 
Baresley s Creek. 


J! 


Pumpkinvine Cre 
Raccoon Creek... 


Euharlee 


BIBB COUNTY. 
Ocmulgee River 


Walnut Creek.... 
Swift Creek 


Stone Creek 
Tobesof kee Creel? 


BURKE COUNTY. 
McBean s Creek. 


Boggy Gut Creek 
Sapp s Spring Cr< 


CARROLL COUNTY. 
Buffalo Creek . . . 


Briar Creek 
Panther Creek... 
Buffalo Creek 



70 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



) 


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CHATTOOGA COUNTY. 
Little Turtle Creek 



^> 

T 

8 



WATER-POWERS IN GEORGIA. 



71 



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PH 302 M -MK UHW 

e 8 





HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 





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WATER-POWEKS IN GEORGIA. 
Bs 1 



73 



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DECATUR CouNT\ r . 
Limcsink . . 


Barnet s Creek. . . 


Attapulgus Creek . . 
Martin s Mill Creek 


Sanburn s Mill Cree 


DE KALB COUNTY. 


Peachtree Creek. . . 


EARLY COUNTY. 


Harrod s Creek 
Colomochee Creek. 

ELBERT COUNTY. 
Beaver Dam Creek . 


J32 J J 

f 1 1 1 Is 

" g *S tc ~ >, 


Cedar Creek 


Little Cedar Creek.. 


be 

3 

o, 

02 



74 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



1 




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paA"aAins moqAA. A g 


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PH 


fe CM O 



WATER-POWERS IX GEORGIA. 



75 















1 

4 

] 

1 

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t 

P< 


low water. 
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Or higher. 
























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. Calhoun Mills 
.Mouth 


. 5 miles Calhoi 
. Near mouth.. 


. Carter s Mill.. 
. At mouth 


. Lot 85 
. 117,7, and 3.. 
. Resaca 


CO 

^ fl 

Ps" 
SSs 


CO 

1 1 

s" 1 


. Stedman s Mi 
. Montgomery s 


. Near Montgoi 


. Lawrenceville 

. Strickland s JV 


. Hamilton s M 


c 

I 
1 


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: : : 




p. 










: : 




X 








GOUDON COUNTS 
Oothculoga 
Connesauga . . 


Craneta Spring 
Smoke Creek. . 


Coosawattee.. 
Talking Rock. 


Dry Creek. . . . 
Salacoa 
Regaca Creek 


Lick Creek. . . . 
Snake Creek. . 
Rocky Creek. . 


John s Creek 

GWINNETT Coui 
Yellow River. 


- * 


Wolf Creek.. 


Suwanee Cree 
Level Creek.. 


< 



>-> 

t> 
1 I 


HABERSHAM Coi 
Hazell Creek. 


Soquee River 
Shoal Creek. . 
Tallulah River 



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86 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



MINERAL WATERS. 

There is a great abundance of Chalybeate or Iron waters 
in the State in different geological formations. Limestone 
springs in the northwestern portion are numerous. Sulphur 
springs do not occur in great numbers. 

The circumstances of the preparation of this outline do not 
allow more than an enumeration of those springs which have 
for years been resorted to for their medicinal properties. 



Catoosa Springs, Catoosa Co., 
Gordon Springs, Whitefield Co., 
Colmtta Springs, Murray Co., 
Rowland Springs, Bartow Co., 
Dougherty s Spring, Polk Co., 
Camp s Spring, Fulton Co., 
Ponce de Leon Spring, Fulton Co , 
Atlanta Mineral Spring, Fulton Co., 
New Holland Spring, Hall Co., 
Sulphur Spring, Hall Co., 
Porter s Springs, Lumpkin Co., 



Madison Springs, Madison Co., 
Helicon Springs, Clarke Co., 
Indian Springs, Butts Co., 
Mineral Spring, Coweta Co., 
Newnan Spring, Coweta Co., 
Sulphur Spring, Meri wether Co., 
Warm Spring, Meri wether Co., 
Chalybeate Spring, Meriwether Co., 
Glenn s Spring, Early Co., 
Springfield Spring, Effingham Co., 
Heard s Spring, Wilkes Co., 



Franklin Springs, Franklin Co. 



Analysis of Camp s Mineral Spring at West End, 2% miles 
from Union Depot, in Atlant i : 

Grains. 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen Gas 0.1720 

Protocarbonate of Iron 2.0320 

Sesquicarbonate of Iron 3520 

Protocarbonate of Manganese 0050 

Carbonate of Manganese 0520 

Carbonate of Lime t 3020 

Chloride of Calcium 1190 

Chloride of Sodium 1320 

Silicate of Soda and Lime 4300 

Crenic and Apocrenic Acids 0180 

Free Carbonic Acid. . . 1.0370 



4. 



Total solid matter dried at 212 F. = 3.5324. 



Analyzed by W. J. LAND, Chemist. 



MARL-BEDS OF GEORGIA. 87 



MARLS. 

Mr. Ruffin, in his " Essay on Calcareous Manures," has 
described the introduction in Virginia of the use of marl (so 
abundant in the southern half of Georgia), and has shown 
the great advantages to be derived from its use. 

The experiments of Governor Hammond of South Carolina, 
with the marl from Shell Bluff, were described by him in a 
letter to the : Agricultural Society as eminently satis 
factory. 

Prof. Hilgard, in his Report on the Geology and Agriculture 
of Mississippi, has shown the very great importance of the 
marls of that State, which correspond closely with those in 
Georgia. 

Prof. Cooke, in the New Jersey Report, devotes much atten 
tion to the green-sand marls of that State, as does Kerr in his 
Report on North Carolina geology. 

Many years ago, Dr. Joseph Jones, in a Report to the Agri 
cultural Society of Georgia, gave many analyses of our marls, 
and urged the free use of them by the planters. 

It has been ascertained that there is scarcely a limit to the 
amount of this fertilizer so highly commended by these men, 
eminent in science and in agriculture. About 30 samples have 
been analyzed for the Geological Survey of Georgia, by Prof. 
H. C. White, of the State Agricultural College at Athens, and 
a report made on the properties of lime and marls. This 
report is herewith submitted for the information and guidance 
of such farmers as may have sufficient enterprise to make use 
of this means provided to their hands, for the regeneration 
and stimulation of their soils. 

It is fortunate for the people of this State that limestone is 
so abundant in North-west Georgia as to be readily accessible 
everywhere and of excellent quality; while a belt of limestone 
crops out or appears on the surface, north of the Chattahoo- 
chee Ridge, in Hall and Habersham Counties, in North-east 
Georgia. 

The map indicates the limits of the cretaceous and tertiary 
marls in the southern portion of the State. 

I have seen in Effingham County, the effects last year of marl 
applied twenty years ago on Mrs. Longstreet s land, and could 



88 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

distinguish by the fresh rich green color of the blades of corn, 
contrasting with the yellow, dry, and burnt leaves on adjacent 
laud, the portion of the farm to which the shell marl had been 
applied, as pointed out by the gentleman who had spread it. 
Actual experience and practice have demonstrated, that with 
judicious rotation of crops, the application of lime not only 
permanently improves soil, but causes a uniformly increased 
production for as many as thirty years. 



REPORT OF H. C. WHITE, 

Professor of Chemistry in the State College of Agriculture 
and the Mechanic Arts, upon the Agricultural uses and 
value of Marls and Peats, with Analyses of a number of 
samples obtained in Georgia: 

ATHENS, G-A., June 1, 1876. 
DR. GEORGE LITTLE, State Geologist, Atlanta, Ga. : 

DEAR SIR : At your request, I have examined a number of 
specimens of marls and peats obtained during the progress of 
the Geological Survey, and have the honor herewith to present 
analyses of the same, with a few remarks concerning their 
character, and their economic value and importance to the 
State. 

(A) MARLS. Strictly speaking, the term " marl " should per 
haps be only applied to such masses or deposits of earth as are 
calcareous in nature. In general use*, however, it has come to 
have a much more extensive application, and to include within 
its meaning, earthy pulverulent masses of various sorts and 
compositions, many of which contain little or no lime. The 
necessity has therefore arisen for the classification of marl 
deposits, and for the qualification of the term by prefixed 
names, in the order of adjectives, generally suggested by 
and distinguishing some characteristic or peculiar property of 
the deposit. Thus, the " green-sand marls" of New Jersey are 
masses of loose, pulverulent earth, distinguished by the 
presence of numerous small particles of what appears to be 
green sand, the composition of which is chiefly silicate of iron 
and potash. Many of these " marls " contain very little lime. 
Clay marls contain much clay ; silicious or sandy marls much 



PEOF. WHITE ON MARL AND ITS USES. 89 

sand. In either of these cases, the second prominent constit 
uent should be carbonate of lime; sometimes, however, these 
names are applied to deposits which contain little or none of 
this last-named substance. " Shell marl " is a true marl, and 
has been formed by the disintegration and comminution of 
the larger shells from which it was derived. 

It is but proper to say that the ultimate origin of all true 
calcareous marls was, perhaps, the shells or other secretions of 
marine animals. In " shell marl," these shells are compara 
tively very large, are generally discernible to the eye in some 
part of the mass, and consequently leave no doubt as to the 
origin in this case. Frequently, however, during the disinte 
gration or breaking up of the shells, the finely divided portion 
has become mixed with clay, sand, and other matters, so that 
the material does not retain the composition of the pure shell. 
Very often, also, the disintegration of the shell is by no means 
complete, so that large fragments, and even entire shells, 
remain mixed with the mass. 

The specimens of marls examined, and which represent per 
haps the general character of much the larger part of the great 
marl deposits of Georgia, belong, with few exceptions, to the 
class of shell marls. 

The peculiar properties and composition of marl render it 
a material capable of useful application in several industrial 
pursuits ; but the one great industry in which it has, up to 
this time, mainly found application, and been esteemed 
valuable in the use, is agriculture. In treating of the uses and 
value of marl, therefore, we would naturally be led chiefly to 
consider its relations to fertility, and those of its properties 
which fit it for the use of the husbandman. 

As an inspection will show, the analyses given herewith ex 
hibit a great uniformity in the qualitative character of the speci 
mens examined. The main differences indicated are in the 
relative proportion of the constituent substances. Of the sub 
stances named in the analyses, those which mainly give >to the 
marls their agricultural value, are Lime, Magnesia, and! Phos 
phoric Acid, to which may perhaps be added, as possessing- 
some value, soluble Silica and organic matter. 

(a) Lime. The value of lime as a fertilizing agent, especially 
efiicaceous in the restoration of worn-out lands to a condition; 



90 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

of fertility, has been known for many years, and its use in this 
connection dates far back into antiquity. The main sources 
of the lime used in agriculture are, and have always been, 
limestones, marl, and marine shells not yet broken up and 
aggregated even to the condition of marl. Limestone differs 
from marl, in that the former is generally more or less compact 
and hard ; while the latter, even when exceedingly rich in 
lime, is generally pulverulent, crumbly, and soft. Limestone 
or shells are rarely ever used in their original, natural forms ; 
generally they are burned in kilns, which effect a radical 
change in their composition and properties. 

As is well known, the lime in limestone (and in shells also) 
is combined with carbonic acid, forming carbonate of lime. 
On burning, the carbonic acid is driven away in the form of 
gas, and the lime is left behind. This " burnt lime " differs 
essentially from the carbonate of lime from which it was 
derived. The hard and compact limestone is changed to a 
loose, friable, and soft mass of lime. The mild, inactive 
limestone is transformed by the loss of its carbonic acid to 
" caustic" or " quick" lime, which must be handled with care 
lest it burn the flesh, and which exhibits a most powerful 
tendency to combine with water ; so strong is this attraction, 
that when quicklime is slaked by treatment with water, a 
great heat is developed by the energy of the combination, 
which manifests itself in the bubbling and steaming of the 
mass. 

Moreover, caustic lime, if exposed, will attract to itself 
water from its surroundings, as the air (when it becomes " air- 
slaked" lime) or the soil upon which it may be applied. But 
water is not the only substance with which caustic lime exhibits 
a tendency to unite. It is what in chemical language is 
termed a strong base i.e, it has a great disposition to combine 
with acids ; and even though the acid be already united to 
other bases, it will frequently replace the latter by the superior 
strength of its attraction. The slaking of lime either by the 
addition of water or exposure to air while it diminishes its 
causticity and quickness, does not impair its basicity ; on 
the contrary, it may be said to increase it. Slaked lime there 
fore possesses the power of attracting to itself and uniting with 
acids. 



PROF. WHITE ON MARL AXD ITS USES. 91 

It is usually in the caustic or slaked form that our agricul 
turists have been accustomed to apply lime to their soils in 
order to increase fertility. A knowledge of those properties 
discussed above may help us to understand something of its 
action in this connection. The action had by lime when 
applied to soils, as generally ascribed, may be briefly enumer 
ated as follows : 

1. Lime is a necessary article of food for all plants. Soils 
deficient in lime will, therefore, not produce good crops. 
Analysis shows, also, that it is one of the substances required 
in largest quantity by most plants for food. Continued culti 
vation would, therefore, exhaust a soil of its lime more quickly 
than of many other constituents. 

2. Lime, by reason of its basicity, attacks and decomposes 
certain mineral salts in the soils, uniting with the acids and 
liberating the bases. Chief among the salts so decomposed 
are certain alkaline silicates compounds of silicic acid with 
potash, etc. which are, in themselves, not in a condition to 
be assimilated by plants, but which, when so decomposed, 
yield potash (especially) and other substances in an assimilable 
form, which are important articles of plant-food. The appli 
cation of lime, therefore, to soils which contain such unavaila 
ble silicates (and nearly all soils do contain them in con 
siderable quantity) is indirectly the application to the crop 
of available food from the soil, of which it otherwise would 
not have the advantage. 

It may be noted that the soil would of itself, in course of 
time, present this food to the plant, since the disintegration and 
decomposition of the refractory silicates would in time be effect 
ed by weather and other natural agencies. The lime merely 
does in one season what the ordinary course of nature would 
require years to perform. It has, therefore, in some localities, 
come to be a proverb (based, it may be said, upon an experi 
ence which a proper forethought and a knowledge of the 
natural principles involved would have rendered less disastrous 
than it has many times unfortunately been) that " the use of 
lime enriches the fathers and impoverishes the sons" meaning 
that the drain made upon the soil by the forcing of its stored- 
up plant-food into a condition at once ready to be taken up 
and appropriated by the growing crops, tends to exhaust the 



92 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

land in a few years of all its power to produce and support 
vegetation ; and so it does. 

If the application of lime alone, lavishly, indiscriminately, 
and without a knowledge and understanding of its action, its 
value, and danger, were all the farmer did to keep his land, 
then the truth of the proverb would be very soon attested. 

We take it that the agriculturist is perfectly justifiable in 
seeking to obtain as large a yield for any given crop as his 
land will possibly afford. Indeed, it would seem that the true 
idea of agriculture should be to make the comparatively small 
portion of the soil that is concerned in plant-feeding do as 
much and as active service as .possible. If all can be made 
available in one season, and the crop be proportionately 
increased, so much the better is it for the farmer ; and he is 
not only justified in his prosperity, but is worthy of commend 
ation for cleverly and wisely taking advantage of the best 
service which nature and his land can render him. He is a 
thrifty, shrewd, and successful agriculturist who keeps his 
capital i.e., the plant-food of his soil in active circulation. 

Of a certainty if this were all the soil, thus deprived of 
its plant-feeding substance, would become worn out and bar 
ren ; but so it would, in course of time, if no forced produc 
tion were had, and there were taken each season, only just so 
much as the soil, under its natural condition, was pleased to 
give. The difference is only one of time. In the latter case, 
the land, after yielding small probably unremunerative crops 
for several 10, 20, perhaps 30 years, would then fail to pro 
duce. In the former, abundant remunerative yields for two, 
three, or four seasons effect the same result. 

Judged of from this consideration alone, it would appear 
that the more speedily the lands were rendered barren, the 
better. But it is well known that there is a remedy by which 
the barrenness incident to the continued gathering of small 
crops may be prevented, and that, by proper treatment, any 
given soil may be retained indefinitely in a condition of 
normal fertility. What is true of ordinary cropping applies 
with equal truth to extraordinary yields. 

The Golden Rule of Agriculture, the prescriptive antidote 
to exhaustion, of universal application whether the yield 
from the soil be great or small, whether it be normal or 



PEOF. WHITE ON MAUL AND ITS USES. 93 

abnormal, natural or forced, is this : Return to the soil each 
season as much plant-food as the previous crop carried away. 
The value of this rule is universally acknowledged, and its 
teaching followed in cases of ordinary production. It is 
equally applicable in cases of excessive yield induced by the 
use of lime. Where the yield is small, the matter returned to 
the soil need be but small ; where the yield is large, the 
return must be correspondingly great. 

Nor need it be feared that the increased return made neces 
sary, will tax heavily the profits of the large yield. A moment s 
consideration only is necessary to show that the valuable por 
tion of the crop that for which the crop was raised whether 
the grain of the cereals or the lint of the cotton constitutes, 
generally, but a small portion of the total vegetation pro 
duced. Only this portion that which is desired for sale or 
consumption should be removed from the soil. All else 
should be at once returned; and the drain upon the soil 
small, even with large crops thus legitimately made can 
certainly, in these days of Charleston Phosphates and German 
Potash Salts (not to mention numerous commercial fertilizers 
of various names and grades), be readily and cheaply com 
pensated. 

The farmer is therefore wise in stimulating production from 
his land by the use of lime, and his wisdom will lead him to 
retain unimpaired the productiveness of his land, by repaying 
the liberality of its increased yields by equally liberal applica 
tions of the elements of fertility. So, when properly studied and 
understood, it would appear that the observed facts which 
gave rise to the proverb quoted, are but testimony to the 
value of lime, when properly applied, as an agent in increasing 
the fertility of the soil. 

3. Lime expedites and powerfully aids the decomposition of 
organic matter, of which all soils contain a greater or less pro 
portion, probably through its great attraction for the carbonic 
and other acids formed during this process. In this respect, it 
is held by some that the action of lime is rather injurious than 
of advantage to the average soil. Whenever the organic 
matters are of a highly nitrogenous character, this is doubtless 
true ; whether it is so in other cases may perhaps be doubted. 
It is certain that lime renders a portion of the organic 



94 HAND-BOOK OF GEOEGIA. 

matter soluble, and thereby improves its character ; the service 
thus rendered would, perhaps, at least counterbalance the ill 
effects of the destruction of a part of the organic matter. 

4. By reason of its attraction for water, lime tends to 
abstract moisture from the soil to which it is applied. This 
action can, perhaps, hardly be put down to its credit, unless, 
indeed, in the case of soils containing an undue amount of 
water, the removal of which would go to their improvement. 
The evil, however, can in great part be corrected by the 
thorough slaking of the lime before application. 

5. There are several minor actions of lime upon the soil 
which need not here be discussed at length. It is supposed, 
for instance, to increase the power of the soil to absorb 
ammonia from the atmosphere, though its value, perhaps, in 
this respect is but slight. Again, it sometimes happens that 
certain soils are barren because of the presence of certain 
substances, such as protosulphate of iron (copperas), which are 
poisons to plants. The application of lime will correct this 
poisonous character and restore fertility to the soil. 

It would appear, from the foregoing discussion, that the 
claim of lime to rank high in value as an economical agricul 
tural agent, is well sustained and must be considered beyond 
doubt. 

It remains to be determined how far the marls, such as 
those, the analyses of which will be given in this paper, are 
capable of replacing the burnt lime of ordinary use, . and to 
what extent their actions and values differ. 

In marls, as in the original imburnt limestones, the lime is 
combined with carbonic acid, forming carbonate of lime. 
Marls, therefore, lack the basicity and causticity of burnt 
lime, and, so far as the A alue of the latter depends upon these 
properties, it can not be fully replaced by the former. Car 
bonic acid, however although caustic and slaked lime have 
for it a great attraction is an acid that can be driven from 
its combination with comparative ease. The carbonate of 
lime is, therefore, in some respects, not wholly without the 
properties of caustic lime. It possesses these, however, in a 
much less intense and active form. Thus the application of 
carbonate of lime to the soil would, in course of time, effect 
the disintegration and decomposition of unavailable silicates in 



PROF. WHITE ON MARL AND ITS USES. 95 

much the same manner as caustic lime would act in the same 
connection. The action would, however, be much slower, and 
would require a much greater length of time. The tendency 
on the part of marl, therefore, to exhaust the soil by stimulat 
ing increased production, would be much less rapidly exerted. 
So far as the furnishing of lime as an article of food to 
plants is concerned, the marl is of equal value with the caustic 
lime. The lime is, perhaps, as available in one case as the 
other, or, at least, speedily becomes so. Marl has not the 
attraction for water that caustic lime possesses, and hence has 
no tendency to deprive the soil of its moisture. The availa- 
bie property possessed by slaked lime of improving the 
physical condition of the soil, by lightening it, rendering it 
porous and open to the effects of the air and rains, is shared 
to almost an equal extent by marl. 

We may therefore conclude that it is perhaps doubtful if all 
the advantages to be derived from the use of caustic or burnt 
lime can be had by the use in its stead, of marl ; but that all 
the dangers which are incident to its application can be 
avoided, is certain. 

It may be well to note the fact that burnt or slaked lime, 
on exposure or on application to land, does not long retain its 
caustic character, but, by absorbing carbonic acid from the 
air, it rapidly passes to the condition again of carbonate of 
lime. A consideration of this noteworthy fact has, indeed, led 
some to conclude that the increased value of burnt lime over 
limestone, was not due entirely to the causticity of the former, 
but, in considerable part, to the fact, that as a result of the 
burning, compact limestone was reduced to a loose, pulverulent, 
finely divided condition, better suited to act upon the soil. In 
other words, that the difference in action between limestone 
and burnt linie applied to the soil, is more physical than 
chemical. 

It has accordingly been suggested that limestone finely 
powdered by mechanical means would possess much of the 
value of burnt lime. 

Experiments made in accordance with this suggestion have, 
we believe, been attended with good results. The value which 
theoretical considerations of its composition and properties 
have assigned to marl as a fertilizing agent, is well attested 



06 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

by the results of practical experiments. Wherever it has been 
employed, the increased fertility of the land has been well 
marked, and excellent results have been obtained. 

The use of marl is not of recent introduction. Its value has 
been for many years recognized and turned to good account. 
Shell-marl especially is perhaps at this time more generally 
used, and in larger quantities, for agricultural purposes in Eng 
land and Europe, than any other one article employed for 
fertilization. The causticity of burnt lime and its tendency 
to disorganize matter render caution in its use necessary, 
since a great excess might even attack and " burn up" the 
growing crop. With marl, mild and harmless, no such danger 
need be apprehended, if judiciously applied. 

The amount used in practice varies very much. In different 
localities, from 10 to as much as 200 or 300 bushels per acre 
have been applied with profit, and on soils abundantly sup 
plied with vegetable matter ; but the quantity depends upon 
the condition of the soil and the quality of the marl. The 
character of the soil and various economical considerations 
must guide the farmer in his estimate of the amount he may 
with propriety employ. 

In this State, marl has not yet come into general use ; it has 
found local application only, but always with good results. 
We are not at this time in possession of statistics to the extent 
to which it is dug and used. No doubt when the true value 
of the great marl-beds within the borders of the State are 
properly understood, they will be more generously estimated 
as sources of agricultural wealth. 

(b) Magnesia. The action of Magnesia in the soil is very 
similar to that of lime. It possesses much of the value, but 
when present in large excess, has more than all the danger of 
common lime. When such excess is present, it effect is more 
injurious than valuable. We need not now detail the rea 
sons for this action ; hence certain magnesian limestones 
produce burnt lime which is not suitable for agricultural pur 
poses. The amount found in the marls examined is so small 
that it adds somewhat to, while it detracts nothing from, their 
value as fertilizers. 

(c) Phosphoric Acid. This is the Jtrticle of plant-food 
which, perhaps above all others, should claim the farmer s 



WHITE S ANALYSES OF GEORGIA MARLS. 



97 



most careful attention. It is absolutely necessary to the life 
and growth of plants ; it is appropriated by them in large 
quantities, and is unfortunately furnished by the average soil 
in very small proportion. The soil is therefore very speedily 
exhausted of its supply, and it behooves the farmer to carefully 
and continually return phosphoric acid to his soil, lest it 
become barren through dearth of this ingredient. Phosphoric 
acid, in one form or another, is therefore made the basis of all 
good commercial fertilizers. 

Marls generally contain a small proportion of phosphoric 
acid, and their value is much enhanced thereby ; so much so, 
indeed, that the comparative value of two marls may be said 
to be in direct ratio to their proportion of phosphoric acid. 
The importance of the matter is such that the estimation of 
the phosphoric acid alone in the various marls of Georgia, is a 
work that would be well worthy the attention of the State. 

(cl) Soluble Silica and Organic Matter add something, per 
haps, to the value of marls, when present. In the specimens 
examined, the quantities of both are so small that they perhaps 
influence their action to a very slight degree only. 

We present the analyses of the samples of marls examined : 

"No. 1. From Washington County, two miles north of No. 
1 3, Central Railroad : of nearly pure white appearance, coarsely 
granular, friable, and dry. 



Lime 49.872 

Magnesia 0.120 

Carbonic Acid 39.215 

Phosphoric Acid 0.782 

Silica (soluble) 0. 984 

Sand . . 5.320 



Oxide of Iron 1.654 

Alumina 0.406 

Organic Matter a trace 

Water... 1.628 



Total 99.981 



No. 2. From Sapp s Mill, Big Spring, Burke County: of 
light yellowish brown color, containing clay; sandy texture, 
friable, and pulverulent. 



Lime 47.231 

Magnesia 0.082 

Carbonic Acid 36.979 

Phosphoric Acid 0.251 

Silica (sol able) 0. 128 

Sand. . 9.680 



Oxide of Iron 2.140 

Alumina 1.450 

Organic Matter a trace 

Water 1.784 



Total 99.725 



98 



HAND-BOOK OF GEOKGIA. 



No. 3. From Effingham County, Mrs. Longstreet s : a mass 
of coarsely comminuted shells mixed with sand, pebbles, etc. ; 
fragmental, and of dark brown color. 

Lime 15.948 

Magnesia a trace 

Carbonic Acid 12.452 

Phosphoric Acid 0.075 

Silica (soluble) 0.612 

Sand.. . 65.620 



Oxide of Iron. ............ 2.380 

Alumina 1.354 

Organic Matter 0.256 

Water 1.168 

Total.. . 99.865 



No. 4. From Crockett s Spring, Scriven County : pure 
white ; rather compact ; of very fine granular structure ; crush 
ing readily to impalpable powder. 



Lime 50.136 

Magnesia 0.025 

Carbonic Acid 39.451 

Phosphoric Acid 0.045 

Silica (soluble) 1.106 

Sand . . 6.628 



Oxide of Iron 1.241 

Alumina 0.215 

Organic Matter 0. 124 

Water... 1.026 



Total.. . 99.997 



No. 5. From Reddick Quarry, Scriven County: nearly 
pure white; coarsely granular and friable, showing fragments 
and impressions of shell ; very dry. 

Oxide of Iron 3.218 

Alumina .. 0.549 



Lime 50.136 

Magnesia 0.054 

Carbonic Acid 37.054 

Phosphoric Acid 0. 132 

Silica (soluble) 1.582 

Sand.. 7.321 



Organic Matter 0.658 

Water... 1.231 



Total 100.120 



No. 6. From Burke County, Shell Bluff : of faint brownish 
tinge ; otherwise similar to preceding. 

Lime 46.763 

Magnesia.. 0.046 

Carbonic Acid 36.521 

Phosphoric Acid 0.125 

Silica (soluble) 1.216 

Sand.. 8.412 



Oxide of Iron 4.310 

Alumina 0.621 

Organic Matter 0. 752 

Water. . 1.314 



Total 100.080 

No. 7. From Clay County Narrows, Pataula Creek : dark, 
bluish gray color; hence sometimes called "Blue Marl;" a 
friable mass of shells and calcareous fragments, mixed with 
fine, dark-colored earth ; micaceous, the small particles of 
mica giving it a glistening appearance ; slightly acid in reac- 



WHITE S ANALYSES OF GEORGIA MARLS. 



99 



lion, hence dangerous to use alone ; should be mixed with 
small amount of caustic lime or purer marl before application. 



Lime 4.891 

Magnesia 0.158 

Carbonic Acid 3.740 

Phosphoric Acid 0.315 

Sulphuric Acid 0.543 

Silica (soluble) 2.213 

Sand. 71.112 

Oxide of Iron... 5.108 



Alumina 2.142 

Potash and Soda 0.146 

Organic Matter 7.312 

Water 2.450 

Total 100.130 

Nitrogen (yielded by Or 
ganic Matter) 0.058 



No. 8. Clay County, above Brown s Mill, north of Fort 
Gaines: coarsely broken shells mixed with earthy and or 
ganic matter of a dark color ; fragmentary and friable. 



Lime 19.002 

Magnesia. 0.025 

Carbonic Acid 15.040 

Phosphoric Acid 0.021 

Silica (soluble) 0.823 

Sand 57.320 

Oxide of Iron. . 2.412 



Alumina 1.106 

Organic Matter 2.563 

Water 1.572 

Total 99.884 

Nitrogen (in Organic Mat 
ter) 0,013 



No. 9. From Clay County, Fort Gaines, Chattahoochee 
River : light yellowish tinge (nearly white), coarsely granu 
lar and friable ; forms and impressions of small shells and 
fragments distinctly visible. 



Lime 44.942 

Magnesia a trace 

Carbonic Acid 35.216 

Phosphoric Acid 0.019 

Silica (soluble) 1.016 

Sand.. . 10.462 



Oxide of Iron 3.186 

Alumina. 2.450 

Organic Matter 1.306 

Water. . 1.328 



Total 99.925 



No. 10. From Chattahoochee County, Bagby s Mill : in 
general appearance and properties very similar to No. 7. 



Lime 5.551 

Magnesia 0.162 

Carbonic A cid 4. 362 

Phosphoric Acid v . . 0.231 

Sulphuric Acid 0.430 

Silica (soluble) 0.312 

Sand 70.919 

Oxide of Iron. . 4.982 



Alumina 2.321 

Potash and Soda 0.158 

Organic Matter 8.121 

Water. . 2.560 



T ot. 



100.109 



Nitrogen 0.037 



100 



HAXD-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



No. 11. A fossiliferous joint clay from Smith s Summit R. R. 
cut, ten miles north-east of Macon, Jones County: a clay 
containing fragments of shells. 



Lime 10.128 

Carbonic Acid 7.264 

Phosphoric Acid a trace 

Silica (soluble) 2. 320 

Sand 57.021 

Oxide of Iron. . 3.284 



Alumina 14.321 

Organic Matter 0.131 

Water 5.616 

Total.. . 100.085 



No. 12. From Quitman County, near Hatch y s Station : a 
blue marl of light bluish gray color, coarsely granular and fri 
able ; contains sand and pebbles ; slightly acid reaction. 



Lime 7.740 

Magnesia. a trace 

Carbonic Acid 6.081 

Phosphoric Acid 0.121 

Sulphuric Acid 0.312 

Silica (soluble) 0. 123 

Sand.. 72.191 

Oxide of Iron.. 4.106 



Alumina 1.541 

Potash and Soda 0.108 

Organic Matter 5.352 

Water 2.421 

Total 100.090 

Nitrogen 0.020 



No. 13. From plantation of J. S. Odom, Montezuma, Macon 
County, Ga. : a light-colored, friable, coarsely granular shell 
marl. 



Lime 43.672 

Magnesia 0.035 

Carbonic Acid 34.122 

Phosphoric Acid 0. 028 

Silica (soluble) 1.215 

Sand.. ..... . 12.642 



Oxide of Iron 3.025 

Alumina 1.756 

Organic Matter 2. 105 

Water. . 1.450 



Total 99.952 



No. 14. From same locality as No. 13 : a light yellow, 
loose, pulverulent marl. 



Lime 46.212 

Magnesia 0.108 

Carbonic Acid 34.731 

Phosphoric Acid 0.875 

Silica (soluble) 0.140 

Sand.. . 10.532 



Oxide of Iron 2.420 

Alumina 2.586 

Organic Matter 0.291 

Water.. 2.105 



Total 100.000 



GEORGIA PEATS. 10 1 



ISTos. 15, 16 and 17. Three samples of 
marls from Houston County. 

15. 
Lime 45.884 


light, buff-colored shell 

16. 17. 

46.732 45.654 
0.098 0.075 
35.431 34.874 
0.894 1.012 
0.218 0.314 
11.963 13.551 
2.346 2.082 
0.987 1.114 
0.113 0.130 
1.218 1.194 


Magnesia .... 


0.213 


Carbonic Acid 


34.986 


Phosphoric Acid 


0.758 


Silica (soluble) , 


0.354 


Sand 


13.451 


Oxide of Iron . . 


2.105 


Alumina 


.. . . 1.354 


Organic Matter 


. . 0.075 


Water 


1.320 







100.000 100.000 100.000 



No. 18. From the neighborhood of Albany, Dougherty 
County : dark-colored, loose, and pulverulent ; contains an 
unusual amount of phosphoric acid, no doubt associated with 
a local deposit perhaps recent of animal bones. 



Lime 42.876 

Magnesia 0.145 

Carbonic Acid.. . 31.958 



Oxide of Iron 2.654 

Alumina 1.328 

Organic Matter 2 . 394 

Water.. 1.628 



Phosphoric Acid 2 . 574 

Silica (soluble) 0.435 

Sand 14.008 1 Total 100.000 

While a perfect acquaintance with the character and true 
agricultural value of the vast marl deposits found within the 
borders of the State, is to be had only after careful and 
extended examination (involving searching and critical analy 
ses), the above stated results and remarks will perhaps serve 
to clearly indicate that such examination is well worthy the 
attention of the State, and that the labor thus bestowed, it 
might confidently be expected, would be productive of inter 
esting and valuable results. 

() PEATS. Peat is an accumulation of organic with a 
varying proportion of earthy matter, that is found in swamps 
and marshes, or in localities where the land was at one time 
of a marshy character. Its production is the result of the 
partial decomposition and decay of leaves, twigs, and other 
vegetable bodies. To it are closely allied, in character and 
composition, such substances as muck, bog-earth, swamp-mud, 
etc. In peat, the decay of the organic matter has stopped 



102 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

short of total decomposition. It is therefore largely carbo 
naceous, and is consequently generally of a black or dark 
brown color. Peat has hitherto found, in general, but two 
useful applications viz., as fuel and as a fertilizer. 

The specimens thus far found in this State, of which analyses 
are to be herein given, possess very little value as fuel, because 
of the small proportion of organic matter ; their fertilizing 
properties are, however, probably of considerable importance. 
As the analyses indicate, they contain a considerable propor 
tion of mineral matter such as is valuable to plants for food. 
There can, perhaps, be no question that the association of this 
mineral matter with the organic matter of the peat, improves 
its condition to a considerable degree, and renders it more 
assimilable to plants than it otherwise would be. In order to 
estimate the extent of this improvement, it will be observed 
that experiments have been made (the results of which are 
hereafter recorded) to determine the solubility of the speci 
mens and their constituents in a dilute solution of ammonium 
carbonate, which may be taken to represent the natural 
solvent of the soil through the agency of w^hich plants receive 
their food. These experiments were, in fact, the application of 
the Grandeau process of soil analysis to the samples of peat 
examined. 

Peat is rarely, perhaps never, used alone in its application 
to land. It is generally composted with other substances, 
which greatly improve its character. The best substances for 
composting with peat are caustic lime, or lime that has been 
slaked by a strong solution of common salt in water. We have 
no doubt that many of our ordinary marls could be substituted 
for lime with good effects. Peat in its natural condition con 
tains more or less nitrogen a valuable fertilizing element 
which it yields to the soil. Composting with burnt lime 
causes the escape and loss of this element. It is probable the 
use of marl would not be attended with this disadvantage. 
There are doubtless a great number of deposits of peat, muck, 
etc., in the State, many of which would be found very useful 
for agricultural purposes. Opportunity has not yet been 
presented, however, for a full and careful examination of 
these, so as to present at this time, a complete report upon 
their character and value. This will no doubt form a part of 



ANALYSIS OF GEORGIA PEATS. 



103 



the valuable and interesting work the Geological Survey has 

yet to perform. 

We present the analyses of the samples examined : 

No. 1. From Muscogee County, eight miles north-east of 

Columbus ; found at a depth of three feet below the surface ; 

of a light gray color ; heavy, dry, and friable ; specific 

gravity, 1.963. 



Water 6.115 

Organic Matter 16 314 

Lime 0.652 

Magnesia 0.134 

Potash 0.055 

Soda 0.020 

Phosphoric Acid 0.245 

Sulphuric Acid 0.218 



Carbonic Acid 0.587 

Oxide of Iron 4.145 

Alumina 3.420 

Silica (soluble) 2.592 

Sand . 63.359 



Total 99.850 



Treated with a dilute solution of ammonium carbonate, the 
following were extracted from the peat : 



Organic Matter 6 .223 

Lime . 247 

Magnesia 0.091 

Alkalies.. 0.042 



Phosphoric Acid 0.136 

Silica, Iron Oxide, etc 5.274 

Total.. . 12.013 



No. 2. From same locality ; on the surface, in bed or layer 
18 inches deep; of dark gray color; rather compact, but 
friable; specific gravity, 1.195. 



Water 7.340 

Organic Matter 21 .531 

Lime 0.923 

Magnesia 0.152 

Potash 0.086 

Soda 0.018 

Phosphoric Acid 0.218 

Sulphuric Acid 0.117 



Carbonic Acid 0.432 

Oxide of Iron 3.847 

Alumina 1.642 

Silica (soluble) 7 . 431 

Sand.. . 46.383 



Total 100.120 



Treatment with ammonium carbonate extracted the follow 
ing: 



Organic Matter 7 . 658 

Lime 0.352 

Magnesia . 065 

Alkalies 0.054 



Phosphoric Acid 0.125 

Silica, etc 10.132 

Total.. . 18.386 



104 



HA^D-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



No. 3. From same locality : found on the surface in bed 
18 inches deep; of black color; spongy and compact; specific 
gravity, 1.537. 

Water 8.512 

Organic Matter 30.808 

Lime 0.920 

Magnesia 0.111 

Potash 0.105 

Soda... 0.017 

Phosphoric Acid . 239 



Sulphuric Acid 0.214 



Carbonic Acid 0.675 

Oxide of Iron 2.563 

Alumina 0.874 

Silica (soluble) 3 .216 

Sand.. .. 51.475 



Total 99.729 



Treatment with ammonium carbonate extracts the following; : 



Organic Matter 12.563 

Lime 0.415 

Magnesia 0.027 

Alkalies. . 075 



Phosphoric Acid. 0.141 

Silica 6.452 

Total.. 19.673 



No. 4. Dougherty County, vicinity of Albany : a black 
muck from a cypress swamp ; spongy, light, and of black 
color. 



Water 11.321 

Organic Matter 22.450 

Lime 1.312 

Magnesia 0.129 

Potash and Soda 0.152 

Phosphoric Acid 0.241 

Sulphuric Acid 0.106 



Carbonic Acid 0.914 

Oxide of Iron 3.224 

Alumina 2.415 

Silica (soluble) 4.621 

Sand. . 53.115 



Total 



100.000 



This specimen was not treated with ammonium carbonate. 

Analysis of a specimen of "clay slate" from Col. Seaborn 
Jones s land, Rockmart, Polk County, of a red color ; said to 
be used to some extent as a paint. 



Water 14.973 

Oxide of Iron 11.3*21 

Alumina.. . 30.381 



Silica 43.325 



Total.. 100.000 



Trusting that the above report will be found satisfactory to 
yourself, and of some interest to the people of the State at 
large, and wishing you every success for the very valuable 
work in which you are engaged, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

H. C. WHITE. 



COMPOSITION OF TYPICAL SOILS. 105 



SOILS. 

TYPICAL COUNTIES Illustrating the Geological formation of 
the various Counties of the /State, with information as to 
the general adaptation of the soil of said Counties for the 
various products of the Temperate Zone. 

1. DADE COUNTY. Trenton and subcarboniferous Limestones give cal 

careous soil. ^>t-tA-<. Q,tUQ(*W-Cr J c&G-^v^^ 

Chazy and Quebec ,and Devonian -Skalee- give ulwrmnem- soil. 
Subcarboniferous Cherts and Millstone Grit give silicious soil. 
Clinton Iron ore gives ferruginous soil. 
Alluvial bottoms along Lookout Creek give humus soil. 

2. BARTOW COUNTY. Trenton and Quebec Limestones give calcareous 

soils. 

~rkftZ^a4 Quebec Shales give aluminous soils. 
Chilhowee Sandstones and Quebec Cherts give silicious soils. 
Limonite Iron ores give ferruginous soils. 
Alluvial bottoms of Etowah, etc., give humus soils. 

3. FULTON COUNTY. Quebec Steatites, Serpentine, and Asbestus give 

magnesian and calcareous soils. 
Quebec Granites give alkaline and aluminous soils. 
Quebec, Itacolumite, and micaceous Schists give silicious soils. 
Cincinnati, hornblendic Gneisses, and Schists give ferruginous 

soils. 

Alluvial bottoms of Chattahoochee give humus soils. 
1 HABERSHAM COUNTY. Quebec Limestones, Steatites, and Tremolites 

give calcareous soils. 

Potsdam, Cincinnati, and Quebec Gneisses give aluminous soils. 
Potsdam and Quebec Sandstones give silicious soils. 
Cincinnati hornblendic Gneisses give ferruginous soils. 
Alluvial bottoms of Souquee and Chattahoochee give humus 

soils. 

5. MUSCOGEE COUNTY. Cretaceous marls give calcareous soils. 

Cretaceous Quaternary clays give aluminous soils. 

Cretaceous and Quaternary sands give silicious soils. 

Hornblendic Gneisses and ferruginous Sandstones give ferruginous 

soils. 
Alluvial bottoms of Chattahoochee give humus soils. 

6. CHARLTON AND WARE CouNTiEs.-*-Tertiary marls give calcareous 

soils. 

Quaternary swamps give aluminous soils. 
Later Tertiary sands give silicious soils. 
Quaternary clays give ferruginous soils. 
Recent swamps give humus soils. 



106 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

In FULTON COUNTY, the limestone is wanting, but we have 
a substitute in the magnesian minerals and rocks of Quebec 
age viz., the serpentines, soapstones, and asbestus beds ; 
and hence they give a soil similar to the calcareous of Dade 
and Bartow. Some of the Gneisses also contain lime in 
limited quantity. 

The aluminous or clay soils are abundant from the decayed 
granite which covers so large an extent of the county, as Avell 
as from the hornblendic Gneisses, and these soils also contain 
a large per cent of alkaline matter, both potash and soda, 
though the preponderance of the Feldspar and Kaolin entitle 
them to be designated as above. 

The Itacolumite bordering the Chattahoochee furnishes the 
sandy beds and silicious soils. 

T\\Q ferruginous or red soils originate in the hornblende of 
the Gneiss, which is largely represented around Altanta. 
There is very little vegetable matter, except such as is 
yearly deposited by the trees now growing ; and hence they 
require ammoniated manures home-made stable - composts, 
and commercial. 

TROUP COUNTY, Virgin Soil (104). As an example of the 
red clay soils of Middle Georgia, this will serve for a good 
representative. Only 69 per cent is insoluble, so that nearly 
one third of the whole is in a condition to be utilized by plants 
for their growth. Of this 31 per cent, there is soluble silica 
nearly 6 per cent, and hence wheat, oats, etc., find abundant 
material for strengthening their stalks. The amount of potash 
is small, only .083, and heads would not be well filled unless 
they received their material from the organic matter, which is 
present in great abundance nearly 7 per cent. Phosphoric 
acid is almost entirely wanting only .012 per cent. The 
organic matter would supply both of these, however, for some 
years. 

The proportion of iron and alumina is very large 8.5 per 
cent of one, and 8.9 of the other; so that any fertilizer applied 
to this soil would be absorbed and retained. By thorough 
culture, exposing a large amount of these to the air, and allow 
ing them to absorb ammonia from it, or by the addition of 
ammoniated phosphates, this important plant-food would be 
prepared for the use of the plants as they need it. 



SOILS OP TYPICAL COUNTIES. 107 

The proportion of lime is very good .596 per cent, ample 
for supplying what is needed by the plant as food, but not 
sufficient to exert much influence in decomposing and disinte 
grating the insoluble matter and releasing from it potash and 
phosphoric acid when needed. 

TROUP COUNTY, Virgin Subsoil (105). This subsoil contains 
twice as much potash and phosphoric acid, and 50 per cent 
more lime, than the soil, and the same proportion of soluble 
silica ; so that deep ploughing arid subsoiling would exert a 
very favorable influence on this land, especially as the amount 
of organic matter in the subsoil seems to be almost two thirds 
as great as in the soil. 

With proper care and judicious treatment, this soil should 
produce well from the first, could be improved in character 
constantly, bids fair to last for many generations, and can be 
made indefinitely fruitful by the addition of stable-manure, 
ashes, poudrette, liquid manures, or commercial phosphates 
and potash salts, and by keeping up a supply of organic 
matter. 

BURKE COUNTY, Virgin Soil (135). The analysis of this soil 
shows a large excess of insoluble matter, less than 5^ per cent 
being soluble or available for plant-food. Of this 5 per cent, 
there is found a remarkable absence of the two ingredients 
which are so essential to the formation of the fruit and seed 
viz., potash and phosphoric acid, there being only (.016) 
sixteen thousandths of one per cent of the former, and (.018) 
eighteen thousandths of one per cent of the latter. To com 
plete the sterility of this soil, there is only .089 per cent of lime. 
The proportion of organic matter is tolerably good, being 
3.185 per cent, or about -fa of the whole. 

This would indicate that the soil might produce a fair crop 
for a short time until this organic matter was exhausted, and 
then would relapse into hopeless barrenness ; especially as 
the analysis shoAvs less than 1 per cent of alumina and iron, 
which are useful in absorbing ammonia from the air when 
they exist in moderate quantities. For an unpromising soil, 
this may be entered for the premium. 

BURKE COUNTY, Virgin Subsoil (136). This subsoil, accord 
ing to the analysis, takes away the last hope of the owner of 
ever having a productive farm, for it is almost identically the 



]08 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

same as the soil to the depth of 15 inches, with the difference 
that it contains almost no organic matter, there being less 
than 1 per cent of organic matter and water together, and 
probably most of this is water. The inference from the 
analysis would be that this soil has been formed from the 
buhrstone, which is almost pure silica ; or from a bed of drift 
sand which had been very thoroughly washed by glacial 
waters. 

No soil from this formation having been analyzed, this has 
been taken as the nearest representative from the same 
geological formation i.e., of the poor sandy soils of the 
county. 

There is, however, a large amount of land in this county 
overlying the limestone portion of the Eocene formation, 
which forms a striking contrast with the soil above given. 
The pine soils of this county are among the best in the State. 

In OHARLTON COUNTY, the Satilla marls furnish almost the 
only calcareous matter for soils. The larger portion of the dry 
land consists of the sands of the pine woods, and hence silicious 
soils predominate. On some of the ridges, this sand gives place 
to, or is mingled with, a red or mottled clay which furnishes 
a good subsoil, sufficiently aluminous to be retentive of 
moisture and manures, and these lands can be highly improved 
by the addition of the humus which is everywhere accessible 
in the smaller ponds and marshes, and exists in almost limitless 
supply in the great swamp. For the decomposition of this 
humus, and rendering it immediately available for plants, 
there is ready at hand, in the marls on the Satilla, the very 
best material. 

ANALYSES OF OKEFINOKEE SWAMP SOILS FROM HUNTER S 
REPORT, BY DR. DANIEL LEE, OF THE STATE UNIVERSITY, 
AT ATHENS. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 are from the north-eastern and eastern 
part of the swamp ; No. 5 near middle ; Nos. 6, 7, and 8 
interior, north of the centre. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 

Silica 90.00 92.74 89.00 90.00 86.20 87.20 84.23 82.17 

Alumina 5.60 2.11 4.25 2.63 2.48 2.74 2.33 5.34 

Oxide of Iron. 2.30 1.88 3.44 5.04 4.47 5.30 8.00 7.36 



SOILS OF TYPICAL COUNTIES. 109 

Analyses of Okefinokee Swamp Soils, etc. continued. 



Lime. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


.83 


.27 


.87 


.45 


1.21 


.87 


.67 


l.<;8 


.23 


.21 


.36 


.08 


.85 


.63 


.38 


.23 


.17 


.12 


1.11 


.83 


1.67 


.10 


1.15 


1.45 


.51 


.36 


.02 


.16 


.74 


.41 


1.09 


.47 



Potash 

Soda 

Sulphuric Acid .47 .31 .25 .26 .67 .70 .38 .31 

Lime 28 .19 .21 .18 .38 .17 .56 .34 

Ph sph ricAcid .09 .32 .18 .30 .46 .19 .87 .42 

Loss.. .00 1.48 .31 .07 .17 .69 3.34 .23 



100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 

j Organic 53.47 93.75 88.00 80.42 90.25 88.90 93.92 93,52 | 

} Inorganic .. 46.53 6.25 12.00 19.58 9.75 11.10 6.08 6.48 f 

jHumicAcid. 35.83 39.14 31.18 43.18 40.67 37.41 33.18 37.15) 

jlns l. Humus 64.17 60.86 68.82 66.88 59.33 62.59 66.82 62.85 j 



BARTOW COUNTY, Soil (8). This soil shows by analysis 35 
per cent available for plant-food. Of this nearly one fifth is 
soluble silica, ensuring good stalks for corn and small grain 
that will not be beaten down or bent by any ordinary rain. 

Potash is present almost to the amount of 1 per cent 
viz., .947. Phosphoric acid is .391 a very unusual amount. 
These two principal elements indicate the soil to be very 
valuable. 

Lime and Magnesia are found to make up over 1 per cent 
ample for any plants. 

Oxide of Iron and Alumina aggregate over 1 1 per cent, so 
that by deep culture an abundance of moisture will always be 
supplied to the plant. 

Organic matter amounts to 10 per cent, so that no fertilizer 
would be needed for very many years. 

This test has actually been made, and the analysis of 
similar soils one in its virgin state, and another sample 
subjected to a century of constant cultivation proves that 
there has been removed by crops one half of the suluble 
silica, two thirds of the potash, one fourth of the lime, one 
third of the phosphoric acid, and one third of the organic 
matter ; and still there is left a fair supply of all the im 
portant ingredients of plants, and far more than in many soils 
considered good and rewarding the laborer for tilling them. 



110 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



LIST OF WOODY PLANTS OF GEORGIA. 



NO. 


FAM 


? FAMILY. 


BOTANICAL NAME. 
GENUS. SPECIES. 


COMMON NAME. 


COUNTY. 


1 


2 


Magnoliacea3. 


Illicium Floridanum. 


Anise Tree. 




2 


2 


" 


Magnolia grandiflora. 


Magnolia. 




3 


2 


" 


" glauca. 


Sweet Bay. . 


*/" a 


4 




" 


" umbrella. 


^4XXr ^*^> i^>4^ 




5 




" 


" acuminata. 






6 




" 


" cordata. 






7 




" 


" Fraseri. 






8 




" 


" Macrophylla. 






9 




" 


Liriodendron tulipefera. 


White Poplar. 


Murray. 


10 


3 


Anonacese. 


Asinima triloba. 


Papaw. 


Murray. 


11 


3 


" 


" grandiflora. 






12 


24 


Tiliaceae. 


Tilia Americana. 


American Lime. 




13 




" 


" pubescens. 






14 


25 


Camilliacese. 


Gordonia lasianthus. 


Loblolly Bay. 




15 




" 


" pubescens. 






16 




" 


Stuartia Virginica. 






17 




" 


" pentagyna. 


[Toothache Tree. 




18 


34 


Rutacete. 


Xanthoxylum Carolinianuni. 


Prickly Ash or 




19 




" 


Ptilea trifoliata. 


Hop Tree. 




20 


37 


Anacardiacese. 


Rhus typhina. 






21 


37 


" 


" glabra. 






22 


37 





" copallina. 


Sumach. 


Murray. 


23 


37 


" 


" pumilla. 






24 


37 


(t 


" j venenata > 


Poison Elder. 




25 


37 


ii 


" j toxicodendron. j 


Poison Oak. 




26 


37 


" 


" Aromatica. 






27 


33 


Vilaceae. 


Vitis labrusca. 


Fox Grape. 




28 


38 


" 


" testivatis. 


Summer Grape. 




29 


38 


" 


" cordifolia. 


Frost Grape. 


Murray. 


30 


38 


" 


u vulpina. 


Muscadine or Bullace. 


31 


38 


" 


Ampelopsis quinque folia. 


Virginia Creeper. 




32 


39 


Rhamnacese. 


Birchimia volubilis. 


Supple Jack. 




33 


39 


" 


Rhamnus lanceolatus. 


Buckthorn. 




34 




" 


Trangula Caroliniana. 


Carolina Buckthorn 




35 


40 


Celastraceae. 


Euonymus Americanus. 


Strawberry Bush. 




36 


40 


" 


" atropurpuria. 






37 


41 


Staphylaceae. 


Staphyla trifolia. 


Bladder-nut. 




38 


42 


Sapindacese. 


Sapindus marginatus. 


Soapberry. 




39 


42 


" 


.(Esculus glabra. 


Horse-chestnut. 




40 


42 


" 


" pavia. 


Buckeye. Whitefield 


41 


42 


Sapindacese. 


Sapindus flora. 






42 


42 


" 


Asculus pariflora. 






43 


43 


Aceraceoe. 


Acer Pennsylvanicum. 


Striped Maple. 




44 




" 


" spicatum. 


Mountain Maple. 




45 




" 


" saccharinum. 


Sugar Maple. 




46 

47 
48 
49 


47 


Legiiminoceae. 


" dasycarpum. 
" aubrum. 
Negund actfroides. 
Amorpha herbacia. 


Silver Maple. Murray. 
Red or Swamp Maple. ^vA/Jv 
Ash-leaved Maple, "fc^ * 


50 


47 


" 


" canescens. 






51 


47 


" 


Robinia pseudacaia. 


Locust. 




52 


47 


" 


" viscosa. 






53 


47 


ii 


11 hispida. 







WOODY PLANTS OF GEORGIA. 



Ill 



LIST OF WOODY PLANTS OP GEORGIA. (Continued.) 



NO. 


FA> 


?.? FAMILY. 


BOTANICAL NAME. rmwurov TMAMV 
GENUS. SPECIES. 


COUNTY. 


54 


47 


Legumlnoceie. 


Wistaria frutescens. 




55 


47 


" 


Erythrina herbacia. 




56 


47 




Cladrustis tinctoria. Yellow Wood. 




57 


47 


" 


Circis Canadensis. Red Bud. 


Murray. 


58 


47 


" 


Gleditschia triacanthos. 




59 


47 


4i 


" monosperma. 




60 


48 


Rosaceae. 


Chrysobalanus oblorigifolius. 




61 


48 


" 


Prunus Americana. 





62 


48 


" 


" umbellata. 




63 


48 


" 


" serotina. Wild Cherry. 


Murray. 


64 


48 


" 


Virginiana. *~ 




65 


48 


" 


" Caroliuacana. Mock Orange. 




66 


48 


V (( 


Cratsegtis spathulata. Hawthorn. 




67 


48 


" 


" aestivalis. Summer or Red 


Haw. 


68 


48 


" 






69 


48 


" 


7 other species. 




70 


48 


" 


Pyrus coronaria. 




71 


48 


" 


" angustifolia. 




72 


48 


" 


" auarbulifolia. 




73 




" 


" Americana. 




74 







Amelanchier Canadensis. 




75 


49 


Calycanthacese. Calycanthus Floridus. 


76 


49 


11 


luevigatus. 




77 


49 


" 


" glaucus. 




78 


52 


Lythracese. 


Neseae verticillata. 




79 


57 


Grossulacese. 


Ribes. 




80 


64 


Saxifragaceae. 


Hydrangea arborescens. 




81 


64 


" 


" radiata. 




82 


64 


" 


" quercifolia. 




83 


64 


" 


Decumaria Barbara. 




84 






Philadelphus grandiflorus. Syringa. 




85 


65 


Hamamalaceaa. 


Hamamelis Virginica. Witch Hazel. 


Murray. 


86 


65 


" 


Fothergilla alnifolia. 




87 


65 


" 


Liquidambar styraciflua. Sweet Gum. 


Murray. 


88 


68 


Cornacese. 


Cornus alterniflora. 




89 


68 


" 


" stricta. 




90 


68 


" 


" paniculata. 




91 


68 


" 


" sericea. 




92 


68 


" 


" asperi folia. 




93 


68 


" 


" Florida. Dogwood. 


Whitefield 


94 


68 


" 


Nyssa multiflora. Sour Gum. 


Murray. 


95 


68 


" 


" agnatica. 




96 


68 


11 


" uniflora. 




97 


68 


" 


" capitata. Ogeechee Lime. 




98 


69 


Capsifoliaceaa. 


Symphoricarpus vulgaris. Snowberry. 




99 


69 





Sambucus Canadensis. Elder. 




100 


69 


11 


Vibernum prunifolium. 




101 




u 


lentago. 




102 




" 


obovatum. 




103 







acerifolium. 




104 


69 


" 


nudum. 




105 


69 


" 


dentatum. 




106 


69 


11 


scabrellum. 




107 


70 


Rubiacese. 


Cephalanthus occidentalis. Button-bush. 





112 



HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 



LIST OP WOODY PLANTS OF GEORGIA. (Continued.} 



NO. j,4j 


FAMILY. 


BOTANICAL NAME. 
GENUS. SPECIES. 


COMMON NAME. 


COUN 


108 70 


Rubiaceae. 


Pinckneya pubens. 


Georgia Bark. 




109 70 


" 


Gelsemium sempervireus. 


Yellow Jessamine. 


110 76 


Ericaceae. 


Gaylussacise frondosa. 


Huckleberry. 




111 76 




" dumosa. 






112 76 




" resinosa. 






113 76 





Vaccinium crassifolium. 


Huckleb ry, Blue- 


114 76 


u 


" stamineum. 


[berry. 


115 76 


" 


" arboreum. 






116 76 


i4 


" nitidum. 






117 76 


" 


" myrsinites. 






118 76 


" 


" tenellum. 






119 76 


" 


" Elliottii. 






120 76 


" 


" corymbosum. 







121 76 


" 


Leucothoe axillaris. 






122 76 





" catesbaei. 






123 76 


11 


" acuminata. 






124 76 


" 


" racemosa. 






125 76 


" 


Andromeda ferruginea. 






126 76 


" 


Oxydendrum arboreum. 


SourWood or Sor- 


127 76 


" 


Clethra. 


[rel Trec.Murray. 


128 76 


" 


Kalmia hit i folia. 


Calico Bnsh. 




129 76 


" 


" angustifolia. 


Sheep Laurel. 


Murray. 


130 76 


11 


Rhododendron arborescens. 


Roseboy Iloney- 


131 76 


11 


maximum. 


[suckle 




132 78 


Aquifoliacea}. 


Ilex opaca. 


Holly. 


Murray. 


ia3 78 


11 


" dahoon. 






134 78 


" 


u cassine. 






135 78 


" 


" ambigua. 






136 79 


StyracaceaB. 


Styrax pulverulentum. 


Storax. 




137 79 


11 


" grandifolium. 






138 79 


" 


" Americanum. 






139 79 


" 


Halesia diptera. 


Snowdrop Tree. 




140 79 


" 


" tetraptera. 






141 79 


u 


Symplocos tinctoria. 






142 80 


Cyrillacese. 


Cyrilla racemiflora. 






143 80 


" 


Cliftonia ligustrina. 


Titi. 




144 80 


" 


Elliottia racemosa. 






145 81 


Ebenaceae. 


Dyospyros Virginiana. 


Persimmon. 


Murray. 


146 82 


Sapotacere. 


Bumelia canuginosa. 






147 89 


Bignoniacea?. 


Bignonia capreolata. 


Crossvine. 


Murray. 


148 89 


" 


Tecomia radicans. 


Trumpet Flower. 




149 89 


" 


Catalpa bignonioides. 






150 93 


Verbeuacete. 


Lantana camara. 






151 93 


" 


Calicarpa Americana. 


French Mulberry Murray. 


152 104 


Oleacea?. 


Olea Americana. 


Olive. 




153 104 





Chionanthus Virginica. 


Fringe Tree. 




154 104 


M 


Fraxinus Americana. 


White Ash. 


Murray. 


155 104 


" 


" pubescens. 


Red Ash. 




156 104 


M 


viridis. 


Green Ash. 




157 104 


" 


" platycarpa. 


Water Ash. 




158 104 


" 


Forestiera ligustrina. 






159 111 


Lauraceo?. 


Persea Carol inensis. 


Red Bay. 




160 111 


" 


Sassafras officinale. 


Sassafras. 




161 111 


k 


Benzoin odoriferum. 


Spice Bush. 





WOODY PLANTS OP GEORGIA. 



113 



LIST OF WOODY PLANTS OF GEORGIA. (Continued.) 



NO. OP PAMTTV 
NO. __ . --,1,, FAMILY. 
FAM Y. 


BOTANICAL NAME. 
GENUS. SPECIES. 


COMMON NAME. 


COUNTY. 


162 111 


Lauraccie. 


Tetranthera geniculata. 






163 112 


Thymeleacea?. 


Dirca paluetris. 


Leatherwood. 


Murray. 


164 124 


Moraceie. 


Morns rubra. 


Mulberry. 


Murray. 


165 125 


Ulmacete. 


Ulmus fulva. 


Slippery Elm. 


Murray. 


166 125 


" 


" Americana. 


Elm. 


11 


167 125 


" 


" alata. 


Wahoo. 


" 


168 125 


" 


Planera aquatica. 


Planer Tree. 




169 125 


" 


Celtis occidentalis. 


Nettle Tree. 




170 126 


Platanaceae. 


Platan us occidentalis. 


Sycamore. 


Whitefield. 


171 127 


Juglandaceae. 


Carya alba. 


Shell-bark Hick- 


172 


" 


" tomentosa. 


Hickory, [ory, 


" 


173 


" 


" glabra. 


Pig-nut. 


" 


174 


1C 


" amara. 


Butternut. 




175 


" 


Juglans nigra. 


Black Walnut. 




176 


" 


" cinerea. 


Butternut. 




177 128 


Cupuliferae. 


Quercus phellos. 


Willow Oak. 




178 128 


" 


" cinerea. 


High-ground Oak, 




179 128 


" 


" virens. 


Live Oak. 




180 128 


" 


" aquatica. 


Water Oak. 




181 128 


" 


" nigra. 


Black Jack. 




182 128 


" 


" catesbaei. 


Turkey Oak. 




183 128 


" 


" tinctoria. 


Black Oak. 


Whitefield. 


184 128 


" 


" coccinea. 


Scarlet Oak. 




185 


" 


" rubra. 


Red Oak. 


Whitefield. 


186 128 





" Georgiana. 


Stone Mt. Oak. 




187 128 


" 


" falcata. 


Spanish Oak. 




188 128 


" 


ilicifolia. 


Bear Oak. 




189 128 


" 


" obtusiloba. 


Post Oak. 


Whitefield: 


190 128 


" 


" alba. 


White Oak. 


" 


191 128 


" 


" lyrata. 


Overcup Oak. 




192 128 


" 


t " prinue. 


Swamp Chestnut. 




193 128 


" 


" prinus. 


Chestnut Oak. 




194 128 


" 


" prinoides. 


Chinquapin Oak. 




195 


" 


" Castanea Americana. 


Chestnut. 


Whitefield. 


196 


" 


Castanea pumila. 


Chinquapin. 




197 


" 


Fagus ferruginea. 


Beech. 


Murray. 


198 


" 


Coryllus Americana. 


Hazel-nut. 




199 


" 


" rostrata. 


BeakedHazcl-nut. 




200 


" 


Carpinas Americana. 


Hornbeam. 


Whitefield. 


201 


" 


Ostrya Virginica. 


Hop Hornbeam. 




202 129 


Myricaceae. 


Myrica cerifera. 


Wax Myrtle. 




203 129 


" 


" inodora. 






204 130 


Eetulaceae, 


Betula n-igra. 


Black Birch. 




205 130 


" 


" lenta. 


Cherry Birch. 




206 130 


" 


Alnus serrulata. 


Alder. 




207 131 


Salicaceae. 


Salix tristis. 


Sage Willow. 




208 131 


" 


" humilis. 






209 131 


1C 


" nigra. 




Whitefield. 


210 


" 


Populus angulata. 






211 


" 


" grandidentata. 






212 


" 


" heterophylla. 


Cotton-wood. 




213 132 


Conifer*. 


Pinus pungens. 






214 132 


" 


" inops. 


Scrub Pine. 




215 132 


" 


" glabra. 


Spruce Pine. 


Murray. 



114 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



LIST OP WOODY PLANTS OF GEORGIA. (Continued.) 



NO. 


NO. OF BOTANICAL NAME. 
FAM Y. GENUS. SPECIES. 


216 


132 Conifene. Pinus mitis. 


217 
218 


132 
132 


rigida. 
serotina. 


219 


132 


tseda. 


220 


132 


australis. 


221 


132 


strobus. 


222 


132 


Abies Canadensis. 


223 

224 
225 


132 
132 
132 


Juniperns Virginiana. 
Cupressus thyoides. 
Taxodium distichum. 


226 

227 
228 


134 Pain 
134 


Torreya taxifolia. 
accae. Sabal palmetto. 
" serrulata. 


229 
230 


134 
134 


Chamserops hystrix. 
Pruuus spinosa. 



COMMON NAME. 



COUNTY. 



Short-lcavedPme.Murray. 

Pitch Piue. 

Pond Pine. 

Loblolly Pine. Whitefield. 

Long-leaved Pine. 

White Pine. Murray. 

Hemlock Spruce. 

Bed Cedar. 

White Cedar 

Cypress. 



BullacePlum,Sloe. 



EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL 
GEORGIA. 



RELATIONS OF 



SITUATION. 

THE exact situation of Georgia (or any other State), either 
in the Union or on the earth s surface, is not often compre 
hended by readers. The bare statement of latitude and longi 
tude makes but little impression, especially of the relative situ 
ation. The figures for Georgia, however, are as follows viz. : 

Between latitude 30 21 39" and 35 north, and longitude 
80 50 9" and 85 44" west of Greenwich nearly one fourth 
of a full circumference west of England. The National 
Observatory in Washington City is 77 02 48" west of Green 
wich, and the longitude of Georgia referred to Washington is 
between 3 47 21" and 8 42 west. The difference in time 
between the eastern and western extremities of the State 
is not quite 20 minutes. The latitude and longitude of 
Atlanta, ascertained by the United States Coast Survey for the 
flagstaff on the Capitol, are, latitude 33 45 19.8" ; longitude, 
84 23 29.7". 



THE BEST COMMERCIAL SITE. 115 

The latitude and longitude of several well-known mountains 
in Georgia are as follows : 

LATITUDE. LONGITUDE. 

Stone Mountain ..... 33 48 22.5" 84 08 46.3" 

Kennesaw " 33 58 34.8" 84 34 46.4" 

Sweat " 34 04 01.9" 84 27 22.2" 

Sawnee " .. 34 14 12.7" 84 09 39.3" 

Lost " 33 56 53.2" 84 41 51.5" 

Games " 33 59 36.2" 85 00 50.9" 

Pine " 34 10 37.1" 84 44 42,4" 

Pine Log " 34 19 18.9" 84 38 14.4" 

Lavender " 34 19 20.0" 85 17 19.4" 

Blood " 34 44 24.1" 83 56 13.6" 

Curraliee " 34 31 45.9" 83 22 33.4" 

Latitude is much more significant in its bearings than longi 
tude, largely affecting climate and productions. Georgia lying 
between 30 and 35 north, the sun, at the summer solstice, 
lacks but 8 of being vertical on her southern border. The 
difference of latitude between the two borders say 4 
is greater than in most of the States, the greatest length 
being north and south ; and the corresponding difference of 
climate and productions is augmented by the fact that the most 
northern part of the State is also the most elevated. These 
circumstances taken together make a remarkable range of pro 
duction. 

The Southern States occupy the south-east corner of the 
United States, and Georgia is nearly in their south-east corner 
Florida occupying it exactly. 

COMMERCIAL SITUATION BEST SITE OX THE COXTIXEXT. 

Georgia, it will be observed, is the keystone of the arch 
formed by the grand curve of the Atlantic States on the one 
side, and the Gulf States on the other. 

The best commercial site on the continent is undoubtedly 
in North America not South. It must be found on the 
Atlantic not on the Pacific, which is too remote. It must 
not be on the Gulf Coast, which has a difficult navigation, 
but on the Atlantic, fully open to the sea. The determining 
criterion is the trade of the Great Mississippi Valley. Every 
Atlantic State has ample facilities for its own immediate trade. 



116 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

The decisive criterion of the best commercial site is the rela 
tive adaptation for the trade of the Great Valley. Georgia 
occupies this position. Geographically, she is on the shortest 
line ; topographically, on the most feasible ; climatically, on 
the line least obstructed by ice. 

This fine position nature has assigned her by placing her 
below the great Appalachian chain, which more than a Chinese 
Wall separates the ocean from the Great Valley. This " back 
bone- of the Continent" rising in Canada, terminates in Alabama 
and Georgia. Here for the first time the " endless" the 
Indian meaning of Alleghany finds an end and opens a gate 
for commerce on the shortest line from the heart of the 
Valley. 

Take the -Mississippi Valley as the centre of the Continent, 
and the junction of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers at St. 
Louis as the heart of the Valley : from this centre the 
nearest Atlantic coast is the sea-coast of Georgia. With one 
end of the compasses at the junction, the arc with the least radius 
will touch the Georgia coast. Or take Cairo, at the mouth 
of the Ohio River, and the case is still more marked. Even 
from Louisville the observation is still true ; while from Cin 
cinnati the length of the line is nearly the same, and really, in 
view of the intervening obstacles, the shortest practicable line. 
The critical position of Georgia becomes more and more 
manifest by careful study of the map. Of the three great 
slopes, the Atlantic, the Gulf, and the Valley slope, Georgia is 
the only State of the Union which impinges upon each. The 
head-waters of the Savannah, the Chattahoochee, and the Ten 
nessee flow from a point within her borders. 

Nearly all the rivers of all the other Atlantic States flow in 
parallel directions south-east into the ocean. Georgia rivers 
from the central point first referred to, flow as radii south-east, 
south, and south-west (and, as if nature were not content to do 
things by halves, the Tennessee River, emptying into the 
Mississippi, bends, with an elbow almost projecting into 
Georgia, accommodating itself to the natural opening). 

The immense importance of the Valley trade has been long 
and fully appreciated. In every part of the course of the long 
mountain chain, every weak point has been carefully examined 
as a passway for the trade. Beginning in New York and 



BEST SITE ON THE CONTINENT. 117 

coming south through Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and 
North Carolina to South Carolina and Georgia, every opening 
has been criticised and essayed. The success of De Witt 
Clinton, in opening this navigation at heavy expense, laid the 
foundation of the commercial prosperity of New York, which 
sprung immediately ahead of Philadelphia and other rivals. 

General Washington made strenuous and protracted, efforts 
to make the Potomac the connecting link, and was himself the 
president of a company incorporated for that purpose. 

In North Carolina, Judge Murphy made similar efforts. 
Indeed, there is a long history to it all various States knock 
ing at the door for passage through the mountain- chain. It 
was thoroughly understood and appreciated by Mr. Calhoun, 
of South Carolina, in its relations to railroad communication, 
the only method applicable to that State. But the natural 
and easiest vent of the commerce of the Mississippi Valley is 
on the coast of Georgia, 

By observing the course of the Missouri River in a south 
easterly direction to its junction with the Mississippi, and 
following the same direction to the ocean, it would terminate 
on the Georgia coast ; and the water communication via the 
Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee, and then by canal and the 
rivers of Georgia to the coast, would require no greater varia 
tion of direction than actually occurs in the course of the 
Missouri or other great rivers. A line from the head-waters 
of the Missouri to St. Louis continued, would strike the coast 
of Georgia ; and the water communication above indicated 
would have the same general direction. 

The magnificent natural position of Georgia was understood 
by Governor Troup, who recommended practical measures for 
taking advantage of it. Those who have regarded Governor 
Troup rather as a man of vigor and will than a man of thought, 
will find in his messages and speeches the traces of a deliber 
ate and well-balanced judgment. The invention of railroads, 
as a new means of transportation, diverted attention from the 
canal system, which was just to be practically inaugurated 
under his administration with his warm support. It was sup 
posed that these would more thoroughly displace canals than 
has proved true in fact. 



118 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

In his annual message of 1824, Governor Troup said : 

" The period has arrived when Georgia can no longer post 
pone the great work of internal improvement. If considera 
tions of the highest order could not prevail, State pride should 
be a motive sufficiently strong to determine her. Some of her 
sisters are already far in advance of her. Almost all of them 
have to a greater or less extent embarked in it. She sees the 
most enterprising and persevering among them, already deriv 
ing advantage from it, which places them in the first rank of 
opulence and power. A State, therefore, like Georgia, blessed 
by Providence with the means of reaching the highest commer 
cial prosperity by a road plain, direct, and practicable, will no 
longer linger in the rear. She will begin, and, with a little 
patience and perseverance, instead of decaying cities and a 
vacillating trade, and, what is most humiliating, that trade seek 
ing an emporium elsewhere than within her own limits, she will 
witness the proud and animated spectacle of maritime towns 
restored and flourishing, new ones rising up her trade steady 
and increasing her lands augmented in value and improved 
in cultivation the face of the country beautified and adorned ; 
and she may witness what was once deemed impossible to 
human efforts the western waters mingling with her own, 
and the trade of Missouri and Mississippi floated through her 
own territory to her own seaports; and all this within the 
compass of her own resources, provided the ordinary economy, 
prudence, and foresight be employed to husband, cherish, and 
improve them." 

The making of a great canal through Georgia, connecting 
the western and eastern waters, has been actively canvassed 
of late years, and its feasibility is endorsed by the highest 
engineering authority. The scheme has been warmly and ably 
supported by Col. B. W. Frobel, who has thoroughly studied 
all its details. So great is the interest of the entire West and 
North-west in such a work, that it can not be permanently 
neglected. 

If there were a proposition made to close the mouth of the 
Mississippi to the commerce of the Great Valley, how would 
it be received ? Practically, for commercial purposes, a new 
mouth can be opened and made available to this great trade. 
The route has been surveyed by order of Congress the survey 



THROUGH LINES OF RAILWAY. 119 

demonstrating that the project is undoubtedly practicable ; 
and the line was adopted by the Senate Committee on Trans 
portation as one of the great water-lines of the country. 

The work has been practically commenced in improving the 
rivers, under appropriations by Congress, which are to form 
parts of this great artery of traffic. 

As this is the shortest line of water communication, so also 
for rail. This first easy gap between the valley and ocean 
is penetrated by the Georgia State Road, or Western and 
Atlantic Railroad, from Chattanooga to Atlanta a single 
connecting link fed by several roads from the North, and 
feeding several toward the South. 

A second opening passes through the Rabun Gap in the 
north-eastern corner of the State, and the valley of the Ili- 
wassee River, of which South Carolina was availing herself 
before the late war. 

Georgia is thus the direct and almost necessary channel 
from the heart of the continent to the sea the great highway 
of commerce. 

The importance of the commercial situation of Georgia is fur 
ther shown as the eastern terminus of a Great Pacific Railroad. 
No other portion of the sea-coast is so favorably situated as hers. 
The road passing substantially along the 32d parallel of lati 
tude, by its western terminus near San Diego and its eastern 
in Georgia, is the route indicated by nature as best subserving 
travel and transportation, free from winter obstructions and 
the numerous impediments of circuity and natural obstacles. 

Of the Cotton-Belt Cotton being the leading article of 
export Georgia furnishes the proper Atlantic outlet. 

Such are some of the advantages peculiar to her commercial 
situation. 

TRANSPORTATION LINES IN THE STATE. 

She has her full share of other advantages common to her 
with other States. In the Shore line of Railroads, she forms 
one link ; so also in the Piedmont line of roads connecting the 
Atlantic and Gulf States. She has three or four separate 
links passing through the State from west to east viz. : 
the line from Eufaula by way of Macon and Millen to 



120 HAND-BOOK OP GEOEGIA. 

Augusta ; another from Columbus via Macon to Savannah ; 
a line from West Point via Atlanta to Augusta; and one from 
Atlanta to Charlotte, N. C. She avails herself also of the 
mountain valley route by means of the Selma, Rome, and 
Dalton Road, and the East Tennessee and Georgia Road. 

Upon an impartial comparison of natural advantages, the 
position of Georgia, her external relations to commerce, and her 
facilities for intercourse, trade, and travel, are unsurpassed. 
To their complete development, a less expenditure of funds, 
public or private, than has been required tor other develop 
ments incapable of the same completeness, would suffice. By 
nature, neither the Erie Canal nor the Chesapeake and Ohio, 
neither the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio, 
nor the Chesapeake and Ohio, possesses such admirable ad 
vantages ; yet these artificial channels, prepared at enormous 
expense, have given the advantages of prepossession to other 
States and sections. The natural advantages may yet assert 
themselves, when the whole country is filled with population 
and capital, and when competition for trade becomes close 
and keen. 

Resting upon the Atlantic, Gulf, and Mississippi slopes, Geor 
gia, were her resources properly developed, occupies the mouth 
of the great funnel through which might pour the wealth of 
the continent herself capable, by the finest combination of 
natural gifts, of a most perfect and systematical internal 
development. 

So much for the external relations of Georgia as to 
geographical and topographical situation. 



BOUNDARIES. 

The boundaries of the State form the subject of a voluminous 
correspondence in the State archives. The following are the 
outlines, given as By notes of a surveyor : 

1. Beginning at the mouth of the Savannah River ; along 
the river to the junction of the Kiowee, and along the 
Tugaloo to the junction of the Tallulah and Chattooga ; 
thence along the Chattooga to a point on the 35th parallel of 
north latitude, at the union of the northern boundary of South 
Carolina and the southern boundary of North Carolina. The 



BOUNDARIES. 121 

general course is about north 35 west, and the length, in a 
direct line, about 247 miles. It terminates at Ellicott s Rock, 
on the Chattooga River, marked, 

" Lat. 35, A. D. 1 8 1 3, N. C., S. C." 

This line, in conformity with the Treaty of Beaufort, 
separates Georgia from South Carolina (all the islands of the 
rivers Savannah, Tugaloo, and Chattooga being reserved to 
Georgia). 

2. Thence on the 35th parallel of north latitude, due west 
to Nickajack on the northern boundary of Alabama. This 
line separates Georgia from North Carolina for 78f miles to 
the junction of North Carolina and Tennessee ; and thence 
for 734; miles separates Georgia from Tennessee. 

3. From Nickajack, the line between Georgia and Alabama 
runs south 9 30 east, to Miller s Bend on the Chattahoochee 
River, about 146 miles. 

4. Thence down the western bank of the river at high- water 
mark to its junction with Flint River, at a point now four chains 
below the actual junction latitude 30 42 42"; longitude, 80 
53 15". The average direction of this line is about south 6 
east, and distance about 150 miles direct. About 130 miles, 
it separates Georgia from Alabama, and the remaining 20 
miles from Florida. 

5. Thence along Orr and Whitner s line, south 87 17 22" 
east (average direction), 158-|f miles, to a point 37 links north 
of Ellicott s Mound, on St. Mary s River. This line is marked 
by a succession of mounds about 10 feet at the base and 5 
feet high a very permanent form of landmark and sepa 
rates Georgia from Florida. It continues approximately and 
on an average as follows : 

G. From Ellicott s Mound, south 10 east, about 10 miles ; 
thence east 8 miles; thence north 24 miles; thence east 
33 miles, following the St. Mary s River in its tortuous wind 
ings to the Atlantic Ocean. 

7. Thence along the coast to the point of beginning at 
the mouth of the Savannah River ; including all the lands, 
water, islands, and jurisdictional rights within said limits, and 
also all the islands within 20 marine leagues of the sea-coast. 

Tybee Island Beacon is in latitude 32 1 16", and longitude. 
80 50 9". 



122 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 



AEEA OF THE STATE. 

Georgia (with the exception of Florida) is the largest State 
east of the Mississippi ; and since the dismemberment of 
Virginia, the largest of the original 13. 

The area of the State, prior to 1802, when she ceded her 
western territory to the general government, exceeded 150,000 
square miles, including the greater portions of the States of 
Alabama and Mississippi viz., 46,200 square miles of the 
former, and 41,856 square miles of the latter. . The precise 
present area is not accurately known the coast and river lines 
being very irregular. It is generally given as 58,000 square 
miles, or 37,120,000 acres, which is probably below the true 
area. 

The greatest length of the State is from north to south, 
320 miles ; and breadth, from east to west, 254 miles. 

The geographical centre of the State is in Twiggs County, 
near Jeffersonville, about 20 miles south-east of Macon. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

Any fundamental study of a country and any thorough 
information as to its resources, must be based upon a knowl 
edge of its topography and natural features. This is informa 
tion as to the way in which God has made the country, upon 
which man can impress only slight and superficial changes 
merely scratches upon the surface of nature. 

For a real understanding of the topography of a country, a 
preliminary knowledge is necessary of certain principles, which 
explain the exact relations of ridges and slopes to valleys and 
watercourses. To the ordinary observer, these seem a mighty 
maze, and all without a plan ; yet they haA r e a plan governed 
by strict law, and have been reduced to well-understood 
principles which are universal in their application, extending 
to the whole surface of the earth, and embracing the smallest 
details of each separate division each State, county, farm, 
and yard, even to the pettiest mole-hill or depression on the 
surface. 

Water supplies the unerring test of relative elevation. The 



SYSTEM OF KIDGES, SLOPES VALLEYS, STREAMS. 123 

tendency of water under the force of gravity is simply to 
descend toward the earth s centre by the shortest course. If 
interrupted, yet not arrested, it takes the shortest course 
practicable. It not only goes down hill, but goes down the 
steepest way i. e., it follows the line of greatest slope. 
Each individual drop of water pursues what, to it, is the 
immediate line of greatest slope, till it finds some level at 
which all forces counterbalance each other ; and here only it 
remains at rest. The greatest slope for it the one drop 
may not be the line, of greatest general slope but the drop is 
infallible in selecting the greatest immediate slope from its 
own exact position. 

The ocean is the great basin at which water usually finds its 
ultimate level. If the communication is obstructed, however, 
a lake or a pond or a puddle may furnish a resting-place ; its 
banks giving the necessary reaction for an equilibrium of 
forces. 

From the ocean, and from any considerable lake into which 
streams flow, there is a regular system of ramifications extend 
ing from this level, back to the remotest places, which form 
part of the water-shed flowing into the basin. The surface of 
the watercourses defines the lines of greatest slope in each 
principal stream, and in each confluent which empties into it. 
Each smaller stream, in its turn, defines another line uniting 
with the superior lines, and when at length no running stream 
exists, the course of each rill which carries off the rain, con 
tinues and completes the system. These lesser rills have their 
subordinate systems till the final irregularity is reached, which 
guides the single drop of rain along its devious course 
following but one principle as modified by the impediments it 
encounters. 

Remarkable it is, that instead of thousands of depressions, 
each constituting a lake or reservoir, the great mass of all the 
running water on the globe finds its way to the sea to a single 
great reservoir. One conduit after another leads to it ; each 
little drain finds its way into a larger sluice or duct, and 
this into a larger, till accumulated into rivers, the whole 
water-shed is drained at one mouth into the ocean. 

The system of ridges and slopes is the exact counterpart of 



124 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

the system of valleys and streams. The one system is the 
glove, the other is the hand, and the^ is exact. 

The Appalachian Chain. The leading feature on a grand 
scale of the topography of the country east of the Mississippi, 
is the Appalachian Chain of Mountains a spinal column 
stretching from the promontory of Gaspe at the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence at the north, and melting away in Georgia and 
Alabama at the south. 

The general line of the Atlantic coast, beginning at the 
south, is about north 35 east ; while the general direction of 
this great chain of mountains is more to the east of north say 
north 38 or 40 east, approaching nearer to the ocean at the 
northern end. The length of the chain is about 1,300 miles. 

The highest mountain-peaks are toward the extremities, north 
and south. At the north, the White Mountains an outlying 
range present the greatest elevation Mount Washington, 
6,288 feet. The culminating point of the entire chain, however, 
is at the south in North Carolina, the summit of the Black 
Dome being 6,760 feet ; and numerous peaks exceed 6,000 
feet. 

The apparent height of the White Mountains rising from 
a base of but 500 or 600 feet is greater than that of the 
North Carolina group, the base of which is about 2,000 feet 
above the sea-level. 

The leading topographical features of all the Atlantic 
States, and indeed of most of the States east of the Mississippi, 
are determined by their relations to this great chain. 

Where our special interest as Georgians begins in the chain, 
a decided change has taken place in some of its features. A 
great and final bend has occurred in its easternmost range, which 
becomes with us a cross range, running at right angles to the 
general course of the mountains. 

This great chain has a western range of mountains which has 
the same characteristics of parallelism and uniform elevation, 
terminating in North-west Georgia. Lookout Mountain and 
the ranges near it Raccoon Mountain, Missionary Ridge, 
Taylor s Ridge, and John s Mountain are parts of this range 
all having the same general direction, and the hog-back 
form. The north-east mountains are quite different in form 
the ranges consisting more of a succession of peaks. 



GKEAT CONTINENTAL EIDGES WATER-SHEDS. 125 

Across the whole northern boundary of Georgia, these ranges 
extend, reaching into South Carolina on the east, where Table 
Rock and Caesar s Head rear their elevated peaks, to Alabama 
on the west, where the Lookout Mountain and others extend 
to the terminus near Guntersville. The whole northern border 
line of Georgia, with its length of 150 miles, is among these 
mountains. 

Great Ridges. The chain of mountains which separates the 
Atlantic from the Gulf slopes is of various widths, extending 
even to 100 miles across ; but there is a narrow, absolute line, 
irregular and tortuous, yet never broken, which is the culmi 
nating ridge, and which winds its way at different levels and 
in different directions, from Cape Gaspe in Canada to Cape 
Sable at the southern extremity of Florida. This long, un 
broken line, without width, separates the waters flowing into 
the Atlantic direct, from those flowing into the St. Lawrence 
and the Gulf. 

From this long ridge two other dividing ridges run out 
one at the north, separating the waters of the St. Lawrence 
from those of the Mississippi ; the other at the south separat 
ing those of the Mississippi from those which flow in the Gulf 
direct. These several long ridges constitute part of the 
tortuous rim of the great basin of the Mississippi. 

The principal ridge entering Georgia from North Carolina, 
passes through the very heart of the State and runs to the 
southern extremity of Florida all the waters east of it flowing 
into the Atlantic ; those west, into the Gulf. The Gulf slope 
itself is divided by a ridge separating the general slope from 
that of the great valley. The point where these two ridges 
meet is in North-east Georgia. Upon this critical point, a man 
with an umbrella in a shower will shed the water in three 
widely different directions. One part would reach the Atlantic 
at Savannah ; a second, the Gulf at Appalachicola ; while the 
third, after a long circuit, would reach the Gulf at the mouth 
of the Mississippi This point is near the corner of Rabun, 
Towns, and White Counties, on Land lot No. 20 in the 6th 
District of the old Habersham County Survey Land lot No. 
100, 19th District, 1st Section, New Survey. 

On the east of the great ridge in Georgia, called the Chatta- 
hoochee Ridge in its most elevated portion, lies the Atlantic 



126 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

slope of Georgia, constituting over half of the State about 
30,000 square miles, or more. On the west, the Gulf slope, 
about 27,000 square miles more than 40 per cent of the 
State. 

Across the lines of greatest slope run another set the lines 
of no slope, or perfectly level lines. The two together consti- 
.tute the warp and woof of the surface. The former run nearly 
at right angles to the coast ; the latter set of lines nearly 
parallel to it. 

These level lines often mark old coast-lines, as the ocean 
receded from its former level. The retreat of the ocean has, 
in many places, left its actual marks. If we suppose the 
former water-levels gradually restored, marking the shore 
lines accurately, we will best illustrate the actual lines upon 
land. The present level the actual shore-line is perfectly 
jagged and irregular. It runs in and out a thousand times. 
Not less but more so would be the other successive shore-lines 
by successive rises. Several successive plateaus would be 
developed, each cut by streams, and each preserving a rude 
parallelism to the present general shore-lines. As the ocean 
would rise into Middle Georgia, these plateaus would cease to 
preserve any generality of level, and the surface would be more 
broken and dotted with peninsulas and islands. With still 
succeeding rises, long and narrow tongues of land would run 
out between the intervening waters, irregular, yet rudely 
parallel to each other, and perpendicular to the general shore 
line. 

River Systems and River-Basins. Upon the Atlantic slope, 
north of the Georgia coast, the course of the rivers and 

O 

valleys is usually south-east. The rivers of Georgia which rise 
at the end of the mountain-chain, and not at its side, flow 
south-east, south, and south-west. 

The river-basins of Georgia, and of the Atlantic coast 
generally, as also of the Gulf coast east of the Mississippi, are 
usually long and narrow from 100 to 250 miles from the 
source to the sea, and from 30 to 50 miles wide, draining 
basins of from 3,000 to 10,000 square miles. The streams do 
not usually lie centrally in their basins, but to the west and 
south of the centres ; the tributaries on the eastern side being 
much longer than in the western. 



NATURAL DIVISIONS HIGHEST MOUNTAINS. 127 

Great Natural Divisions of Georgia. These are deter 
mined, not so much by ridges as by coast-lines. These 
indicate .relative altitudes the leading feature which affects 
climate and productions. By these lines, running nearly 
parallel to the present coast, the State is divided into three 
great divisions viz., the Mountain Region, the Hill Country, 
and the Low Country. 

Lower Georgia lies below the line joining the heads of navi 
gation of the rivers, and is much the larger part of the State, 
with an area of about 35,000 square miles. It is below the 
level of 300 feet above the ocean. 

Middle Georgia lies between the heads of navigation and 
the elevation of 1,000 or 1,100 feet, and has an area of about 
15,000 square miles. 

Above .this is Upper Georgia, with an area of about 10,000 
square miles, embracing nearly all the mountains of the State 
and much hill country. 

The average elevation of the surface of Georgia, above the 
sea, is between 600 and 700 feet. 

The Mountain or Up- Country. The character of the moun 
tains in North-eastern Georgia is quite distinct from those 
in North-west Georgia. In the north-east they constitute lines 
of separate peaks ; in the north-west, long, parallel ranges. 

The Blue Ridge, which attains its maximum height of 6,760 
feet in North Carolina in the peak of Black Dome, enters 
Georgia in the north-east corner, in Rabun County, having 
lost about 2,000 feet of its elevation, the Rabun Bald being 
4,698 feet. 

Another and longer chain (the Western Range of the Appala 
chian Chain, or Cumberland Range) enters Georgia between 
Rabun and Towns Counties ; cuts off Towns, Union, and 
Fannin, and recrosses the State line into Tennessee. This 
embraces Tray Mountain, an elevation of 4,437 feet. 

Aside from the main ridge is the Brasstown Bald Mountain, 
or Mount Enotah the highest peak in the State 4,802 feet, 
situated a few miles west of Hiwassee in Towns County. 
Blood Mountain in Union County attains a height of 4,460 
feet. 

From this long and curved chain strike out two other 
shorter chains one extending into Union and Fannin Counties; 



128 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

the other forming the Tallulah Mountains, and its extension, 
the Chattahoochee Ridge. 

South of Tray Mountain lies Mount Yonah, a fine separate 
peak of 3,171 feet elevation. Another separate peak is the 
Currahee Mountain of 1,740 feet about 800 feet above the 
surrounding country. 

The general level of the counties forming the base of the 
mountains is quite elevated Clarkesville in Habersham 
County having an elevation nearly equal to that of the Cur 
rahee Mountain. Every sort of surface is to be found 
mountainous, hilly, broken, and knobby. The valleys are not 
usually wide. Between Tray and Mount Yonah lies the beau 
tiful and fertile valley of Nacoochee. 

Scenery. The finest scenery of the State is to be found in 
North-eastern Georgia ; though much that is very fine is also 
found in the North-western section. A view from one of the 
peaks in the midst of the mountains is magnificent. To one 
unaccustomed to such scenery, it surpasses even his imagina 
tion. From the summit of Tray Mountain, for example, there 
are literally many hundreds of peaks in full view. The earth 
seems to have risen in huge billows, and suddenly hardened, 
leaving them standing. From the summit, reached after many 
arduous steps up and down (for, as a guide said with some 
simplicity, " You have to go down as much as up" certainly 
as often to reach the top), a half dozen or more long spurs 
reach off like buttresses, supporting the peak. Over and be 
tween these, you see other mountains seeing the spurs also of 
those next to you of the others seeing only the peaks. By 
distinctness of outline and by relative clearness and dimness, 
you distinguish distances. The buttresses and nearer moun 
tains show the trees in bold outline, the foliage distinct, the 
coloring deep green. Dimmer grows the green and less dis 
tinct the outline, till in the dim distance only the blue slopes 
are discernible ; yet these assume all varieties of form. Nice 
shades of coloring enable you to distinguish the nearer ranges 
with no other relief than these delicate shades. The horizon 
seems afar off and ever receding as you rise. 

It is a lonely view. No sign of human habitation or human 
culture disturbs the grand serenity. To witness the sun rise 
is a solemn spectacle. In the presence of the majestic earth 



SUBLIME SCENERY. 129 

and this ball of fire, man feels himself to be nothing. Another 
presence is felt to be here even greater than these. 

From Mount Yonah, a noble summit, separated from other 
mountains, a different and quite unique view is to be had. 
You see mountains as before on the one side though more 
remote and on the other, hill and plain, and the far-distant 
level horizon. So beautiful is the view, including the lovely 
valley of Nacoochee, that you scarcely could choose between 
the view from Yonah and Tray. 

A lady from the low country, who had never seen a moun 
tain before, made the ascent. Her friends requested her not 
to look round as she went up, that she might get the whole 
of the novel view at once. It was too much for her when she 
opened her eyes upon it all, and she wept like a child. " It 
is paradise !" she exclaimed ; " It is heaven itself." And no 
wonder, for the earth so seen is very fair to see. 

In North-western Georgia, the mountain-ranges have another 
aspect widely varying the character of the view. The view 
from Point Lookout, on Lookout Mountain, in Tennessee, just 
across the line, is noted. From this point, 7 States are 
visible ; with a long stretch of the Tennessee River, the city 
of Chattanooga, and much cultivated country. A yet more 
elevated summit in Georgia, on this mountain, is called High 
Point. The mountain extends for more than forty miles, 
Avith a road upon its crest as level as the ordinary roads of the 
country. In many places, a traveller would not suspect him 
self to be upon a mountain. 

& 

CLIMATE. 

Climate is in the air. Of all the powers near us, the air is 
the least manageable of our surroundings. It comes to us 
from afar, and goes when and as it pleases. We can partially 
isolate ourselves in houses, but the great mass of the atmo 
sphere is beyond our control. We adapt ourselves to it not it 
to us; and so we have to go to climate itwill not come to us. 

Of the changes which take place in it, the sun s heat is the 
primary cause. The earth and sea are secondary causes by the 
absorption and radiation of heat ; but this heat affects us only 
through the air. The sun, the earth, the ocean, latitude, 



130 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

altitude, topography, all affect climate, and climate affects us ; 
but only through the air : so that the science of climate is the 
science of the atmosphere, and the conditions which affect it, 
as temperature, humidity, movement, etc. The circulation of 
water and the circulation of air are the leading conditions. 
Evaporation affects the humidity, the cloudiness of the 
atmosphere, and the rainfall from it. 

Comparatively few as are the elements, they are on so grand 
a scale and so subtle as to have defied prediction. The atten 
tion paid to its laws has just begun to assume scientific form. 
The law of storms has only of late begun to be understood. 
The ability to predict the weather, even for a brief season, is 
a veiy recent acquisition. Now, mankind have gained a clue 
to the laws of the weather, and they have many facilities for 
following it, which they are not slow to use. Air, the Mercury 
of weather the messenger of its influences to us is being 
closely studied. The influences affecting it are everywhere 
too complex for any other mode of study except that of direct 
observation ; especially so in Georgia, lying between two seas 
and below the mountains. 

The three great points of interest in climate are : (1) 
Temperature ; (2) Rainfall ; (3) Winds. The sun, directly or 
indirectly, is the origin of all. The sun s heat causes evapora 
tion, clouds, dampness and rainfall. It affects relative pres 
sure, and so promotes currents and creates the wind. The 
ocean-currents convey heat to the atmosphere above and 
temper the northern climates with warmth from the tropics. 

The moisture received into the atmosphere by evaporation, 
and returned in rain to the earth, would cover its whole surface 
with a sheet, at the equator, measuring annually 10 feet in 
depth ; at the tropics, about 6 feet ; in the latitude of 
Georgia, 4 feet ; at 45, 3 feet ; at the poles, 1 foot. Thus 
both temperature and moisture are carried from the tropical 
to the higher latitudes. 

The temperature of the air falls, on an average, 1 Fahr. for 
every 300 feet of elevation. This would make a difference in 
Georgia of 16 by reason of relative elevation, between the 
shore-level and the highest summit. Latitude affects tempera 
ture, and there being 4J difference of latitude between the 



GEORGIA CLIMATE, AS IT IS. 131 

northern and southern limits of the State, this would make a 
difference of about 9 by the thermometer. 

Mistakes as to our Climate. " How hot does it get. though ?" 
asked a tourist, finding the winter climate very delightful, and 
supposing it would be hard to express how hot the summer 
must be to pay for it all. " Not so hot as with you in your 
cities, at all events. The warm weather begins earlier in the 
year with us than with you, and continues later; but the range 
of the thermometer is not so high in summer." 

Such was the reply. To a stranger, the information about 
climate meets one of his points of greatest interest. These 
points are three the negro, cotton, the climate. 

For the year round, the climate is fine, especially of Middle 
and Upper Georgia. It is fine for out-door work or in-door 
work ; for winter crops and summer crops. 

On the temperature map, the mean annual temperature for 
the year round, below a line joining Augusta and Columbus, 
would be between 68 and 64; between the same line and 
a line nearly parallel to it, passing about 20 miles below 
Atlanta, between 64 and 60; another strip of territory, in 
cluding Atlanta, between 00 and 56; Upper Georgia, 
between 56 and 52 ; the mountains, below 52. 

The entire range of mean temperature, not including the 
mountains, is, therefore, about 16 ; including them, perhaps 
20. 

The line through the United States marking a mean annual 
temperature of 60 begins in South-east Virginia, above Nor 
folk, in latitude 37^, passes above Raleigh in North Carolina, 
below Greenville in South Carolina, below Atlanta in Georgia, 
and leaves Georgia in latitude 33. In Alabama it takes a 
turn upward, runs into- Tennessee below Nashville, passes 
from Tennessee above Memphis, and runs with many curves 
to the Pacific, about latitude 34 the same with Atlanta. 

This is one of the choicest of all climates that which ranges 
about 60. The mean annual temperature of Atlanta is the 
same with that of Washington City, Louisville, and St. Louis. 
The winters of course are warmer in Atlanta, but the summers 
not so hot. These temperatures are derived from the reports 
of the Smithsonian Institute. 

The mean climate of Clarkesville and Gainesville in Upper 



132 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

Georgia, corresponds with that of Central Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Upper Missouri, and Lower Nebraska. 

It must be remembered all the while that the winter climate 
in Georgia is warmer, and the summer range is lower to com 
pensate the difference in length of days increasing the sum 
mer range in the more northern latitudes referred to. 

At New York, in midsummer, the days are very nearly one 
hour longer than at Savannah, and at Quebec one hour and a 
half longer, and the nights correspondingly shorter ; conse 
quently at New York there is one hour longer for heat to 
accumulate from the direct rays of the sun, and one hour less 
time in the night for the accumulated heat to be carried off 
by radiation. This is the main cause of northern latitudes 
being hotter in summer than southern latitudes. 

The mean annual isotherm of 60 on the other continent, 
passes through Spain, Italy, and Greece in Europe ; and in 
Asia, through Persia into China. 

Distribution, of Heat. This is more important than the 
mean annual temperature. The latter may be very moderate 
and promising, but composed of elements of excessive heat in 
summer, and excessive cold in winter. These diversities, how 
ever, do not characterize the climate of Georgia. The extreme 
range is nearer to the mean than in more northern climates. 

Another feature of distribution is in the diurnal changes as 
well as in changes of the season. Very sudden rises or falls 
of temperature are hurtful both to health and comfort. In 
this respect also our climate is favorable. 

The winter weather at the north is usually the more import 
ant the summer weather at the south ; the January mean 
temperature at the north the July mean temperature at the 
south. But this importance at the south is not because the 
thermometer rises to so high an extreme as because of its 
range through the 24 hours. That extreme heat which causes 
sun-strokes, seeming to melt the brain, seldom occurs. 

The isotherm of 50 January temperature, passes through 
Georgia ; and on the Eastern Continent through Spain, Italy, 
Greece, Palestine, Russia, Thibet, and China. The isotherm 
of 82 July temperature, passes also through Georgia, and 
through North Africa, Carthage, above Egypt, into Palestine 
about Jerusalem. This would make a range of 32 between 



ISOTHERMAL LIXES. 133 

the mean temperatures of January and July. We have the 
winter climate of Rome ; the summer climate (yet more 
important to agriculture) of Jerusalem. 

The United States Signal Service Chart shows the mean 
temperature of the hottest week of 1872, at 4.35 P.M., and of 
the coldest week of the following winter, 1872, at 7.35 A.M. 
The hottest temperature indicated in Upper Florida and 
Lower Georgia was 94. The same temperature was marked 
at the junction of the Arkansas and Mississippi at Vicksburg, 
and at Jackson considerably higher latitudes. The next 
highest temperature, 93, embraced Wilmington, X. C., and 
Eastern South Carolina. That of 90 passed through Upper 
Georgia and then into much higher latitudes, including 
Virginia and Ohio, and reaching to Fort Benton on the 
Missouri River, in latitude 48. The temperature of the 
coldest week in Middle Georgia was 30. 

TEMPERATURE TABLES. The following tables indicate the 
temperature at the places and for the times named : 



134 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



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May, 1875 
June, 1875 

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135 



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136 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



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WHAT IS AN INCH OF RAIN? 137 



Rainfall. The prodigality of nature is illustrated in the 
enormous quantity of water which falls upon the earth s 
surface. 

What is an inch of rain ? 

An English acre consists of 6,272,640 square inches, and an 
inch deep of rain on an acre yields 6,272,640 cubic inches of 
water, which at 231 cubic inches to the gallon makes 27,154 
gallons ; and as a gallon of distilled water weighs 10 Ibs., the 
rainfall on an acre is 271,540 Ibs. avoirdupois ; counting 2,240 
Ibs. as a ton, an inch deep of rain weighs over 121 tons per 
acre. For every 100th of an inch in depth, 1.2 tons of water 
falls on an acre ; and for every 10th of an inch, 12 tons. 

It would require, therefore, a good wagon-load for 2 or 
3 horses, to carry the water necessary for the 100th part of 
an inch in depth of rain on an acre. 

On an average in Georgia, from 46 to 50 inches of rain falls 
in a year, making the equivalent of 5,600 tons or more of 
water on a single acre. Some idea may be thus obtained of 
the enormous supply nature furnishes. It would take 10 
loads a day, every day in the year, to supply, on a single acre, 
the quantity of water which nature furnishes gratuitously. 
What would it cost to water a farm thus ? a plantation ? even 
a square in a garden ? These facts give some idea of the 
impossibility of the irrigation of crops, except when water can 
be cheaply conveyed by natural forces to where it is needed. 
Irrigation also is intended only to supplement an insufficient 
rainfall. In the best situated countries for irrigation, an 
enormous system of canals and ditching is necessary. In the 
Scriptures, mention is made of " watering with the foot," and 
he will understand the expression who passes back and forth 
to a vessel, even to water a bed of strawberries. 

Climate is essential. It must furnish us, free. 

What becomes of it all ? Much passes by streams into the 
ocean ; much permeates into the ground ; much is evaporated. 

The distribution of rainfall, as that of temperature, is far 
more important than the actual quantity. The season at which 
it falls, and the intervals between rains, are the leading condi 
tions affecting production. Excess and defect are alike inju 
rious to crops. The distribution in Georgia is such as to 



138 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



secure a good general average of crops, and the climate in 
this respect may be regarded as favorable. 

There is seldom a failure such as often occurs in countries 
excessively dry or excessively wet. June, July, and August 
are the most important months as affecting the main cultivated 
crops. 

The following tables exhibit rainfall at the places and for the 
times expressed: 



MONTHLY RAINFALL AT MACON, GA., FROM JANUARY 18Tl, TO 
OCTOBER 1876, INCLUSIVE. TAKEN BY MR. .T. M. BOARDMAN. 



MONTHS. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


January 


4.27 


3.34 


3.43 


1 77 


5 33 


1 46 


February 


6 27 


6 72 


4 54 


6 80 


4 37 


4 23 


March. ... 


6.01 


11.90 


3 66 


7 88 


12 95 


4 06 


April 


5 58 


5 58 


3 25 


9 26 


5 56 


7 10 


May .... 


4 73 


95 


7 26 


1 45 


2 43 


1 85 


June .. 


5.91 


1.58 


7.61 


3.48 


3 16 


5 88 


July 


1 64 


5 43 


4 70 


5 60 


1 61 


8 67 


August 


5.52 


4.61 


5.33 


5 23 


7 68 


2 47 


September 


11 96 


1 47 


3 58 


1 27 


3 94 


2 93 


October 


2 50 


0.40 


26 


1 42 


67 


2 96 


November 


8 85 


5 34 


3 90 


2 03 


4 48 




December 


5 95 


3 38 


2 96 


4 09 


1 63 


















Totals 


69 19 


50 70 


50 48 


50 28 


53 81 


.... 

















RAINFALL TABLES. 



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SNOW AND EAIN. 



141 



Notes by Major Wight : 

The largest amount of rain that fell in any one day, during 
this period, was September 29, 1870, 6.30 inches. The rainfall 
for several other days was as follows : August 27, 1871, 5.30 
inches; August 16, 1872, 3.52 inches ; February 7, 1873, 2.24 
inches ; February 12, 1873, 3.44 inches ; February 16, 1873, 
3.68 inches; August 29, 1874, 4.08 inches. 

Snow. 1870 December, 2 days. 1871 November, 1 
day ; December, 2 days : total for 1871, 3 days. 1872 
January, 1 day; February, 3 days; March, 2 days; December, 
1 day : Total, 7 days. [N.B. This record shows that there 
were 9 snows in the winter 1871-2.] 1873 February, 1 day. 
1874 no snow. 1875 no snow. 

The heaviest rains came generally from the south-west. The 
slow, steady rains were generally from the south-east. Prevail 
ing winds were from the north-west. The average depth of 
30 wells in the vicinity of these observations is 27 feet. 



RAINFALL AT ATHENS, GA., IN THE MONTHS OF JUNE, JULY, 
AND AUGUST, DURING FOUR YEARS. FURNISHED BY DR. E. 
M. PENDLETON, PROFESSOR OF PRACTICAL AGRICULTURE IN 
THE GEORGIA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND THE 
MECHANIC ARTS. 





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2 22 


14 


3 85 


10 


3 90 


14 


9 12 


July 


8 


3 14 


13 


4 09 


8 


2 12 


11 


4 49 


August. 


10 


3.58 


8 


3.82 


9 


6.95 


12 


6.16 




















Totals . . . 


30 


8 94 


35 


11 76 


27 


12 97 


37 


19 77 





















142 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



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Maximum Height. 



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CONDITIONS AFFECTING CLIMATE. 143 



Value of Weather Records. A record enabling us to review 
the weather for half a century or more, if faithfully kept in 
all portions of a territory as large as Georgia, would be very 
interesting and highly valuable. From such a record, we 
could draw reasonable probabilities. The Georgia State 
Department of Agriculture has tried to induce men in every 
section of the State to keep and furnish records of the weather 
with partial success. It is still pressing the matter. 

The great facts which we wish to know agriculturally, are 
the distribution of heat, cold, and rainfalls ; the seasons in 
which it rains, the way it rains as to gentleness or rapidity, 
the intervals between rains or length of drought, etc. We 
may have much information, and yet not know the most 
important facts. 

In the two months of June and July of the present year, 
1876, the number of days on which rain has fallen in the 
greater portion of Georgia has been sufficient, and so has the 
number of inches of rain ; yet it has been so distributed, or 
rather so concentrated, that many things have suffered by 
excess of rain small grain being damaged and the crops get 
ting grassy ; and since these rains a drought still more injuri 
ous. This illustrates well the necessity of dates, number, and 
amounts. 

The general conditions aifecting the climate of Georgia are 
well known, though exact details are imperfect. We have 
two exposures to the sea the Atlantic and the Gulf botli 
affecting temperature and moisture. In mountain exposure 
toward the north, with small obstacles to the wind in other 
directions, there is a large quantity of woodland, well diffused. 
There is a marked distinction in the soil of the northern and. 
southern parts of the State, both as to texture and color, and 
so in power of absorption and radiation of heat. We have 
slopes to the south-east and south-west inclining to the sun, 
and a considerable variety of altitudes. These conditions are 
quite complex, and render numerous observations necessary. 
Local variations of temperature and rainfall are numerous and 
considerable. 



II. THE PEOPLE. 



RACE CHARACTERISTICS. 

THE second great division of this work, and by far the most 
important, is THE PEOPLE. 

We propose to treat of the People as to Race and Inherited 
Characteristics, and of the effect upon them of their circum 
stances and surroundings, for which the specific word now 
used is ENVIRONMENT. 

The People constitute the great element in the determina 
tion of their own destiny. " There is more in the Man than 
there is in the Land" more in the Man than in all else of 
Nature and of Art. 

No country better illustrates this truth than America as it 
is under the White, and as it was under the Red Man. Look 
again at California as a part of Mexico, and at the same 
country with its new population as part of the United States ! 
Look at Liberty or Mclntosh County in Georgia as it was 
under the control of the White man, and as it is now under 
the control of the Black ! 

Of the prodigious importance of Race and its permanent in 
fluences upon the destinies of the country, it is hard to form 
an overestimate. The slow, long process of race development 
or retrogression covers long periods, almost like the Geological 
Ages. The constitution of a race, with its corresponding eleva 
tion or depression, is the inheritance of successive generations 
of good or bad environment and culture. It is the transmis 
sion of induced qualities a species of wealth of slow accumu 
lation, and fortunately of slow waste. 

The broad range of race peculiarities, and the time it 



RACE CHARACTERISTICS. 145 

requires to develop them, or the depth of the marks this time 
impresses, are not less striking. They are illustrated in the 
simpler organisms, by the difference in the varieties of plants 
and vegetables. One species of wheat is bearded, one of oats 
is rust-proof. They are susceptible of structural changes in 
the lapse of time ; yet have great permanence of type. They 
can be changed by intermixture, but by any other method the 
change of variety is very slow. 

Race features are intensified by continuance of natural con 
ditions, and by constant social assimilation. The changes in 
a People are analogous to the changes in an individual. In 
the periods of an individual life, what a difference between the 
undeveloped infant, the active man in the maturity of his 
powers, and the infirm man in his decay ! Yet while these broad 
general differences characterize each individual, each has still 
his own peculiarities, and can only be developed accordingly. 
So with a People the difference between a People at any stage 
of progress or development being as marked as between indi 
viduals. 

It is remarkable how widely the rule of variation amid uni 
formity extends. In the same race, with all the common 
features of resemblance, each people has its peculiarities, dis 
tinguishing it from others of the same race. Note the differ 
ence between the English people and their descendants in the 
United States ; also between these descendants in different 
sections / yet each knows its own, and each of the others is 
recognized in his variations. These differences among the 
same race extend to counties and communities, and can be 
recognized by experts and those who habitually observe such 
things, and can be largely traced to their origin. 

Leading men with their peculiarities modify the ways and 
manners of the common people. This law of assimilation 
prevails toward those who are admired the opposite to those 
who are not admired. The Negro imitates the white man the 
latter avoids the peculiarities of the Negro. 

The American People are substantially an English stock, 
transplanted into a new environment, with the lesser race 
stocks engrafted upon it. 

The Southern people are more unmixed English than those 
of any other section of the Union. Chiefly the descendants 



146 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

of the English and the people of the Northern and Middle 
States themselves descended from the English neither the 
direct immigration from countries other than England, nor 
their descendants, have largely affected the Southern States. 

The main influential race elements of the white population 
in the South are English and Scotch-Irish. This is especially 
true of Georgia. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PEOPLE OF GEORGIA. 

The prevailing civilization of Georgia is similar to that of 
Virginia, from which a large part of our population was dem r ed 
greatest in influence, if not largest in number. North Caro 
lina added the next largest element of influence in the Scotch- 
Irish, which also came partly from Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey. 

The early settlements were upon the coast and large streams; 
and by degrees the country was populated inland. Savannah 
and Augusta are the oldest two cities. The youth of the 
State was thrifty. She grew up under easy circumstances. 
The contest with nature was comparatively small, and the 
active powers of men found occupation in the study of 
politics and human relations, more than science or nature. 
They were remarkably well informed upon the principles of 
government. The history of Georgia of her State and 
Federal relations her attachment to State Rights and the 
frequent bold and successful assertion of the same are re 
markable. The constitution of 1798 lasted till 1861 ; and the 
Judiciary Act of 1799 contains features which, after being 
law in Georgia for half a century, were adopted into the laws 
of Great Britain. 

The social bonds which unite the people of Georgia are 
unusually close and complete. The great divisions of White 
and Black swallow up minor divisions to a very great extent ; 
but in Georgia there is less separation than in the older and 
more settled South. There is no caste-ridden population in the 
State ; and even in most of the cities, the circles are less defined 
than elsewhere. Society is firmly bound together upon a just 
rather than an artificial basis. The true philosophy of society 
is not caste, which separates, but union, which unites ; not 



CHARACTERISTICS OP THE PEOPLE OF GEORGIA. 147 

separation, but combination the association of the really fit 
not of those designated by convention and included within 
artificial lines. 

The effect on character of the contact of an inferior race 
with a superior, whether as slaves or as mere population, is 
always marked. Its tendency is to develop good or evil traits 
according to the peculiarities of the superior. 

Of the Southern people, Georgians are regarded as the most 
practical and enterprising. In Northern prisons, during the 
late war, they were sometimes characterized as Southern 
Yankees. They really possess many of the good elements of 
both North and South. The Georgian has much common- 
sense and power of adaptation to circumstances. His specu 
lative views yield readily to the practical. Put him on his 
mettle and he is apt to succeed. There is a good deal of candor 
in his composition, and he is generally sensible, observant, and 
energetic. Georgians, in the general aspect of all qualities 
combined, are unsurpassed. They may be lacking in some 
qualities possessed by others, but they have a just and balanced 
character, and their judgment of men and conduct is excellent. 

On the whole, the English People are not to be surpassed 
for manliness. In the United States, no finer type of English 
manhood is to be found than in Virginia. Her statesmen 
and people have evinced this in many ways. They have a just, 
honest character manly, noble, generous, and able. Their 
manners are natural, expressing their true character not sharp 
nor narrow, but broad, open, collected, practical, and thought 
ful. 

The dominant element of the population and civilization 
of Georgia was derived from Virginia. Our representative 
men have had this bias. Public honesty till reconstruction 
after the war brought the dregs to the top was untarnished, 
except in one corrupt act, deeply repented of, the Yazoo 
fraud. No attempt on the public purse was made. During 
the present century up to the end of the war, there were no 
defalcations in high office, and not even a provision made for 
so inconceivable and unlooked-for an offence. There was little 
public debt, and no peculation. 

Any account of the character of Georgians would be greatly 
lacking in individuality, which did not refer to a somewhat 



148 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

rude and blunt independence, persistent perseverance, and self- 
reliance, which characterize them peculiarly. They are con 
tent with their own convictions, with little regard to authority 
or precedents, and proceed to put them into action. 



THE NEGRO. 

THE early history of the Negro race is but little understood. 
In the ordinary sense, they can scarcely be said to have any 
history ; but their constitution and nature their habits and 
modes of life have been studied. 

Much of the recent information obtained by exploring the 
interior of Africa, is not applicable to them as we know them. 

The ancestors of the Negro in the Southern States were 
nearly all brought from the west coast of Africa, from Upper 
and Lower Guinea, the region of Congo, and the slave coast 
just south of the equator, and rank among the lowest of 
this lowest race of mankind. 

The works of Monteiro and the missionary to Africa, Rev. 
Mr. Bowen, supply valuable information. The former was a 
decided believer in the Evolution doctrine, while Mr. Bowen, 
being a missionary, entertained a different view ; but whether 
from the religious or the scientific standpoint, the conclusions 
of these two fair-minded men are remarkably coincident. 

No one supposes that he understands the Chinese, Japanese, 
Persian, or other distant race, except by personal observation or 
by reading the books of observers ; but too many imagine they 
understand the Negro, who is far more remote in organization 
and civilization. It would benefit the world if those who 
think they understand the Negro character, without opportunity 
of learning, could be led to suspect the correctness of their 
views. Even the modifications of English character by change 
of country, require contact to be understood. 

Immense interest has been felt in the Negro population of 
the Southern States. If any thing is to be prized by what it 
has cost, the Negro of the South may properly be considered 
one of prime regard ; and in the study of no other subject has 
there been manifested in so high a degree " that beautiful ease 



AND AS HE IS. 149 

and confidence which belong to the speculative philosopher, 
whose course is but little obstructed by facts." Men will listen 
to and endorse speculations on the Negro, who will turn an 
instant deaf ear to witnesses who testify the facts of his con 
dition. It is often the case that the less one knoics of the con 
dition of this race, the greater is his confidence in his opinions. 

To understand the Negro aright, it is necessary to know 
what he was in his native country, and what he is now, after 
contact for some generations with a civilized arid superior race. 
Too frequently the facts of his low organization and coarse 
nature are turned from with distaste, and the facts of his con 
dition studied by the aid of imagination and romance, instead 
of observation and correct testimony. Yet the prejudices of 
the most determined in their foregone conclusions, usually 
give way rapidly as they come into any real actual contact 
with the Negro ; and they usually have far less patience with 
him than those who really understand him. 

To appreciate the changes wrought by contact with the 
whites, we must, as before said, understand him as he was in 
Africa. Perhaps the most fully informed writer on the con 
dition of the race in their native country is Monteiro, a Portu 
guese, who has recently published the results of a number of 
years of experience and observation among the Negroes of 
Lower Guinea. He thinks the climate accounts for many of 
his physical and mental characteristics. He says : 

" It would be very singular indeed if a peculiar adaptation for resist 
ing so perfectly the malignant influences of the climate of tropical 
Africa the result of an inferior physical organization was unaccom 
panied by a corresponding inferiority of mental constitution. It is only 
by the theory of natural selection/ or the survival of the fittest, to 
resist the baleful influences of the climate through successive and 
thousands of generations the fittest being those of greatest physical 
insensibility that the present fever-resisting, miasma-proof Negro has 
been produced ; and his character can only be explained in the corre 
sponding retardation or arrest of development of his intellect." 

Again he says : 

" It is really astonishing to see the naked Negro without a particle of 
covering on his head (often shaved), in the full blaze of the fierce sun 
his daily food a few handfuls of ground-nuts, beans, or mandioca roots, 
and often the most unwholesome water to drink. At night he throws 
himself on the ground anywhere without a pillow, and wakes in the 



150 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

morning generally wet with tlie heavy dew, and does not suffer the least 
pain or inconvenience." 

These extracts give a faint idea of the Negro in his native 
wild. Others might be given which would show more fully 
his normal savage condition, but this is deemed unnecessary to 
the intelligent reader. The proper criterion by which to com 
pare the Negro in African slavery (for it was from that class 
of Negroes in Africa that the importations to America were 
made), is the condition of the Negro slave in Africa with the 
Negro as seen to-day in America. Those imported into 
America were transferred from slavery to savages, to slavery 
to civilized white men. 

The condition of 4,000,000 of Negroes in the Southern 
States civilized, clothed, and to a great extent Christianized 
presents a marked contrast with that of their brethren in 
Africa, notwithstanding the efforts of zealous missionaries to 
Christianize and civilize the natives in their own country. 

The improvement in comfort, happiness, and civilization 
between the present Negro in America, and the native African, 
either when the first importation was made or at the present 
time, is too great to admit of comparison. More Negroes are 
brought under the influence of the Christian religion in Georgia 
in one year than in both the Guineas in 1,000 years. 

Thus much for the advantage derived by the Negro from 
being transplanted from African to American slavery the 
only way in which such a transformation of character could 
have been effected, since by no other means could he have 
been thrown in such immediate, friendly, and constant contact 
with a superior race. 

Marked and astonishing as the improvement has been from 
the African savage to the present Negro of Georgia, many 
of his native characteristics have not been extirpated. Among 
these may be mentioned his superstition extending into secular 
I and religious matters, his want of respect for the truth, disre 
gard of the rights of property, and peculiar absence of reason 
ing faculties. In his new role of citizenship, these peculiar 
characteristics have been somewhat augmented. 

As an element of production the freedman involves a diffi 
cult problem. As a laborer, under proper control, he is perhaps 
the best that can be had at present, for the culture of cotton, 



THRIFTLESS AND IMPROVIDENT. 151 

sugar-cane, and rice ; but when the present generation of 
trained laborers passes away the rising generation being 
reared without control and in habits of idleness fears are 
entertained by the most thoughtful and observant, that the 
Negro will cease to be an element of production. 

There is a tendency on their part to collect around towns 
and cities, where a precarious subsistence is secured by menial 
services, which they generally perform " by the job," being 
usually unwilling to contract for full and regular employment. 
The same disposition is manifested by them in the rural dis 
tricts, where they insist upon working for a " share of the 
crop" in preference to hiring for wages, either by the month 
or year, because it gives the employer less control of their time. 

There is also a tendency with some to remove to the South 
west, under the influence of higher wages offered for farm 
labor. This emigration is mainly from among the unsteady 
and least industrious of the race, while the more thoughtful, 
stable, and respectable, generally refuse to leave the place of 
their nativity. 

They are an improvident people, both by nature and habit, 
and, even now that they are free, need daily direction and 
supervision by a superior mind. A few of the more intelli 
gent and prudent among them, conscious of this necessity, 
employ white men of experience to supervise and direct them 
in their own work, when they rent lands on their own contract. 
The females are fast withdrawing from field labor, and becom 
ing a burden upon the labor of the males ; though, when 
slaves, they were an important element of production. 

It is even now a debatable question with the thoughtful 
political economist, whether the Negro population of Georgia 
is self-sustaining ; even the intelligent Negroes themselves, 
who, having been trained as slaves to regular systematic labor, 
and now are comparatively industrious from habit, look for 
ward with forebodings to the future oZ their race, when Jiey 
contemplate the rising generation growing up in ignorance of 
useful and available arts, or knowledge of the methods of 
performing any work, and generally without parental control. 
Very few are learning trades less than during the existence 
of slavery; and there will therefore be fewer of the next gene 
ration of laborers receiving wages as skilled employes than now. 



152 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

There were, last year, admitted to the public free schools of 
the State of Georgia 55,268 Negroes, many of whom have 
made remarkable progress in those branches which require an 
I exercise of the memory ; but generally fail in those branches 
of learning which require the exercise of the reasoning facul 
ties. The State makes an annual donation of $8,000 to a 
college located in Atlanta, and devoted to the education of 
Negroes. 

The change in the relations of capital and labor by emanci 
pation was so sudden and radical, that the equilibrium of those 
forces was completely destroyed. Old ideas and the practice 
and experience of a century were necessarily revolutionized, and 
men old in years and experience had to begin the world anew. 
The new relations are now beginning to assume some stability, 
. and both Negroes and Whites seem to have accepted the situ 
ation in good faith, and, in Georgia at least, are working, each 
in the sphere so plainly indicated by the Creator in the physical, 
mental, and moral characteristics of the two races. 

Whatever romance writers and universal philanthropists, 
who are totally ignorant of Negro character, may say or 
write to the contrary, their inferiority to the white race in the 
higher elements of manhood is a fact too well established by 
history and observation to admit of question. 

The future of the Negro in America is a problem which 
time alone can decide. 

As an element in politics, his career is virtually at an end, 
except to increase the number of representatives from the 
Southern States in the Federal Congress. 

As an element of consumption and destruction, he is destined 
to play an important part. 

As an element of progress and higher development, those 
who know him best assign him a low position. 

As a factor in the increase of population, his race must of 
necessity decline in ratio to the whole, since he is confined to 
natural increase, which is checked by defective moral re 
straint, but not by prudential motives ; while the white man 
tis both the sources of natural increase and immigration, from 
hich to draw recruits for his swelling multitudes, aided by 
intelligence and prudence. 



POPULATION AND CAPACITY OF GEORGIA. 



POPULATION. 

THE population of Georgia in 1870 was 1,184,109. Of these 
638,926 were white, and 595,192 black. Only 11,127 were 
foreign born. 

The number of families in the State was 237,850, and the 
average was 5 persons to a family. 

The number of dwellings was about the same as families, 
236,436. 

Of persons in Georgia, 48.9 per cent are males, and 51.1 per 
cent females ; 54 per cent are Whites and 46 per cent 
Negroes. Of militia, between 18 and 45 years of age, 9.1 per 
cent are Whites and 7.9 per cent Negroes. Of voters over 21, 
10.9 per cent are Whites and 9.1 per cent Negroes. 

The centre of population of Georgia is in Monroe County 
near the Ocmulgee River, about 10 miles a little north of 
east from Forsyth. 

The centre of white population is on the border of Monroe 
and Butts Counties (near Dublin, Butts County), and about 12 
or 13 miles north-east of Forsyth. 

The centre of population is about 40 miles north-west of the 
geographical centre. The centre of total population differs 
only about 10 miles from the centre of white population. 

Of the people of Georgia, 6 per cent are engaged in manu 
facturing ; 4 per cent in trade and commerce ; 15 per cent 
in professional and personal services ; and 75 per cent in 
agriculture. 

CAPACITY OF GEORGIA FOR POPULATION:. 

Japan, with 30,000,000 of acres in cultivation, sustains a 
population of 33,000,000 without importation of food. The 
land, however, is fine, splendidly cultivated, highly manured, 
irrigated, and improves in value. 

The agricultural population of Georgia is 888,000, and there 
are about 500,000 acres in cultivation. Upon a system of in 
tensive cultivation, it might perhaps sustain a population 3 
times as great on the same land. Were Georgia as thickly 
settled as Massachusetts, the population would exceed 10,- 
000,000. 



154 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



INSTITUTIONS OF THE PEOPLE. < 

GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE THE PRESENT CONSTITUTION 

OF 1868. 

SUFFRAGE. A voter must be a male person, 21 years old, 
born in the United States or naturalized or one who has 
declared his intention to be naturalized, or a resident at the 
time of the adoption of the Constitution. He must have 
resided in the State 6 months, and 1 month in the county 
in which he votes, and must have paid his taxes for the pre 
ceding year. Residence as a soldier or sailor of the United 
States is not sufficient. The disqualifications are treason, 
malfeasance in office, duelling, and any penitentiary offense. 
It declares the right of suffrage to be inalienable. 

BILL OF RIGHTS AND LIMITATIONS IN LEGISLATION. The social 
status of a citizen is declared to be not a subject of legislation. 
There shall be no imprisonment for debt ; no whipping as a 
punishment for crime. 

STATE TAXATION. A poll tax not exceeding one dollar shall 
be collected, and devoted to educational purposes. Taxation 
shall be uniform on all sorts of property, and ad valorem. 
Power to tax may be given to counties and municipal corpora 
tions for their purposes. 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. This consists of 2 houses 
the Senate and House of Representatives called the General 
Assembly. It meets annually on the second Wednesday in 
January, and the session is 40 days, unless prolonged by 
vote of two-thirds of each house. Disqualifications for either 
house are wrought by felony, larceny, duelling, or removal 
from the district. 

The Senate consists of 44 members, each elected for 
4 years 22 going out every 2 years. The districts 
were fixed by the Constitution to consist of 3 counties 
each, the State then having only 132 counties. Since that 
time 5 new counties have been created, and each of these by 
the act creating it was attached to the senatorial district of 
which it was a part before being set off as a new county. 



EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT HOMESTEAD. 155 

The House of Representatives is composed of 175 members, 
as follows : 3 representatives each from the 6 most populous 
counties ; 2 each from the 26 next most populous ; and 1 each 
from the remaining 105 counties. A change in the apportion 
ment may be made after each federal census, but the number 
of members can not be increased beyond 175. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. The Governor is elected for 4 
years. He has the veto power, the pardoning power, and the 
appointment (with the concurrence of the Senate) of the 
following officers viz. : Judges of the Supreme Court, Judges 
of the Superior Courts, Attorney-General, Commissioner of 
Agriculture, State School Commissioner, State Geologist, 
Solicitors-General, Judges of County and City Courts where 
established by special law, and Notaries Public. 

The Secretary of State and Surveyor-General (the two offices 
being consolidated), the Comptroller-General, and State Treas 
urer, are elected by the General Assembly every 4 years. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT; The Judicial Department of the 
Government consists of the following courts viz. : the 
Supreme Court, Superior Courts, Courts of Ordinary, Justices 
(of the Peace) Courts, and " such other courts as may be 
established by law." In conformity with this provision, County 
Courts have been established in several counties, and City 
Courts in some cities. 

The Supreme Court is for the correction of errors, and con 
sists of 3 Justices appointed at first for 4, 8, and 12 years, and 
each subsequent appointment for 12 years. Its sessions are in 
Atlanta. 

The Superior Courts are held in every county of the State. 
Each Judge has a judicial district or circuit, composed of a 
certain number of counties, there being 20 circuits and 20 
Judges in the State. These Judges are appointed by the 
Governor for 8 years. Nearly all important matters of contro 
versy come within their jurisdiction. 

The Constitution provides that Jurors shall be upright and 
intelligent citizens. 

HOMESTEAD AND EXEMPTION. The Constitution provides 
that each head of a family, or guardian or trustee of a family 
of minor children, shall be entitled to a homestead of realty 
to the value of 82,000 in specie, and personal property to the 



156 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

value of $1,000 in specie ; and no court or ministerial officer 
in this State shall ever have jurisdiction or authority to 
enforce any decree or judgment or execution against any 
property so set apart, except for taxes, purchase money unpaid, 
or expenses incurred in its improvement. The Supreme Court 
of the State has held that this exemption or homestead is not 
good against contracts made before the adoption of the Con 
stitution, and the Supreme Court of the United States has con 
firmed this decision of our State Supreme Court. 

The Supreme Court of this State has also defined the right 
of minor children under this provision, and held that property 
mortgaged by the father in his lifetime can not, after his 
death, deprive his minor children of a homestead m the 
mortgaged premises. 

The Supreme Court of this State has, however, held that the 
head of a family can, as such, waive his right to a homestead 
in a specific property, and the right to claim and obtain such 
homestead as the agent of his wife ; that the right to claim a 
homestead does not compel a man to do so, and he can do so or 
not, as he chooses. He is entitled to it if he desires it, and not 
otherwise. 

WIFE S ESTATE. A wife, notwithstanding marriage, con 
tinues to be the legal owner of the property she possessed at 
the time of marriage, and of any that accrues to her by gift, 
bequest, or her own acquisition after marriage. 

DIVORCE. No total divorce shall be granted except upon 
the concurrent verdicts of two juries. When a divorce is 
granted, the jury rendering the final verdict shall determine 
the rights and disabilities of the parties, subject to the provi 
sion of the Court. 

EDUCATION. The Constitution requires the establishment of 
a thorough system of general education, forever free to all the 
children of the State. The Public Schools of the State, and 
the distribution of the fund for the support of the same, are 
under the control of the State School Commissioner. 

LAWS OF PRESENT GENERAL INTEREST. 

WILLS, DISTRIBUTION OF ESTATES, ETC. A testator may do 
what he will with his own, not to the prejudice of his credi- 



LAWS OF DESCENT COLLECTION OF DEBTS. 15? 

tors ; and his wife is so far a creditor that he can not defeat 
dower except by consent ; nor can he entail property. 

In case of Intestacy the distribution of an estate is made as 
follows : After payment of expenses of administration, of a 
year s support to the family, and the debts of the intestate, the 
remaining property goes 1. To the husband, or husband s 
children, if any, of a deceased wife ; 2. To the wife, or wife s 
children of a deceased husband the wife having the one fifth 
part if there are more than 4 children ; 3. To the children ; 4. 
To the father, mother, brothers, and sisters of the intestate. 

The children or grandchildren represent a deceased distri 
butee ; this rule not extending beyond the grandchildren of a 
brother or sister. 

Upon the death of an intestate, his widow may elect to take 
a dower or one third interest for life, in the lands of her 
deceased husband, and share and share alike with the children 
in the personal property ; or she may relinquish her right of 
dower and take a child s part, share and share alike, in all 
the property, to be her own absolutely. 

COLLECTION OF DEBTS. A Justice of the Peace has jurisdic 
tion in all civil cases where the principal sum involved does 
not exceed $100 ; and 10 days residence in a Justice s district 
is sufficient to give jurisdiction. If the amount is under $50, 
suit can be brought and trial had in 15 days ; if over $50, in 
20 days. If either party is not ready, the Justice may con 
tinue the case upon a sufficient legal showing for a reasonable 
time, not more than 10 days ; but neither party shall have 
more than one continuance except for providential cause. 

When a case is tried, the Justice renders judgment enforced 
by execution. The execution must be issued in 4 days, and 
the sale of property advertised 10 days, if the property levied 
upon is personal. Xo lands can be levied upon to satisfy a 
Justice Court execution, unless no personal property can be 
found liable thereto. If land is levied upon, the levy must be 
made, and the execution turned over to the Sheriff, who shall 
advertise the sale 4 weeks before the first Tuesday in the 
month, and sell at the court-house door. 

Either party dissatisfied with the decision of a Justice of 
the Peace, can carry the case to the Superior Court upon 
appeal, if the sum is over $50 ; or by certiorari if $50 or less. 



158 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

LIENS. These are established by law and attach to property 
for taxes, for judgment or decree of court, and in favor of 
laborers, landlords, mortgagees, merchants, factors and others 
furnishing supplies, mechanics, contractors, innkeepers, and 
a few other cases. 

Liens for taxes have the highest rank, and must be satisfied 
before all others. Laborers liens are next, and attach for 
labor performed, to the general property of their employers. 
They are superior to all other liens except for taxes and the 
special liens of landlords on yearly crops, and the special liens 
of factors for supplies furnished. The landlord s lien for rent 
on the crop produced, is superior to all others against the crop 
except for taxes. Factors, merchants, landlords, dealers in 
fertilizers, and all who furnish necessary supplies with which 
to make a crop, have a superior lien upon the crop except for 
taxes and labor. 

All mechanics of every sort, who have taken no personal 
security, shall have a lien upon the property upon which they 
work (including the real estate upon which it is located), for 
work done or material furnished, in building, repairing, or 
improving any property. To make good such a lien, it must 
be recorded in 30 days, and suit brought for the recovery of 
the money in 12 months. 

TAXES. The rate of taxation for State and county purposes 
varies from year to year, from 80 cents to 81 on each $100 
worth of property. Church and school property is not taxed ; 
and all money invested in the manufacture of cotton, wool, and 
iron, is exempt from taxation for 10 years from the date of the 
investment. 

RECORD OF CONVEYANCES. All titles to land and mortgages 
on land, must be recorded within 12 months from their date. 

ARBITRATIONS. The laws provide for parties having disa 
greements to submit their case to arbitrators whose awards 
are binding. This affords a speedy and satisfactory method 
of settling controversies without the expense of a trial before 
the courts. 

THE LAND POLICY OF GEORGIA, 

The tenure of land is, in every country, one of the most 
important features of its policy, and one which has, accordingly, 



LAND POLICY HEAD RIGHTS. 159 

attracted much of the attention of statesmen and the discus 
sion of political economists. The policy in England, in 
France, and in the United States has been quite various. 

In the United States it has become more uniform. In Eng 
land, nearly nine tenths of the land is held by 12,000 persons. 
In France there are many small holdings. 

In Georgia, the doctrine of many of the political economists 
that land is worth only what is put upon it, has been more 
thoroughly practiced than, perhaps, in many other States. 

HEAD RIGHTS. Originally in Georgia, land was held in what 
was called in law " tail male," but this policy was changed at 
an early period. An Act was passed in 1777, shortly after 
the Declaration of Independence, for opening a Land Office, 
and for the better settling and strengthening the State, and to 
encourage immigration, granting to every free white person 
(the head of a family) 200 acres of land, and 50 acres for each 
member of the family (including Negroes) not exceeding 10 
in number. This was the first Head Hie/Jit law ; but the war 
of the Revolution being then in progress, it failed of its pur 
poses. 

In 1780, it was renewed, and the Land Office located in 
Augusta, because the low country was in British occupation, 
the Act reciting that " the rich and healthy lands in Wilkes 
County and elsewhere remain unsettled, to the great detriment 
of commerce and strength of the same, while many of the 
citizens of this State are suffering by their lands being in the 
hands of the enemy." After the close of the war, much of 
the legislation had reference to thus settling the State. 

The Head Right country includes all the territory south of 
Franklin, Banks, and Jackson Counties, and east of the Oconee 
River, and was all acquired from the Indians before the 
Declaration of Independence. 

INDIAN TREATIES. After the Revolutionary War, the remain 
ing portions of the State were acquired by successive treaties 
made by the Federal Government. The land thus acquired 
was distributed by successive LOTTERIES among the free white 
male citizens of the State over 18 years of age. Every such 
citizen, who had not previously drawn, was entitled to one 
ticket ; if a husband or father, to two tickets; certain officers 



160 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

and soldiers to two ; widows and orphans were included in 
the distribution. 

The lands taken up by Head Rights were wholly irregular 
in form, each man pursuing his own taste in shaping the land 
selected, and varying the lines to include the best lands. The 
remaining portions of the State, distributed under the lottery 
system, were regularly surveyed. 

LAND LOTTERIES OF THE STATE. There have been 8 distribu 
tions of land by Lottery, as follows : 

1st Lottery. Lands acquired from the Creek Indians by 
Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, June 16th, 1802, disposed of by the 
Lottery of 1805, under Act of May llth, 1803. It consisted of 
two separate bodies of land in different sections of the State 
the first a long strip of country on the West side of the Oconee 
River, from High Shoals on the North to the mouth of 
Palmetto Creek on the South, and was thc 5 n designated as 
Baldwin and Wilkinson Counties. The line began at the 
upper extremity of High Shoals on the South bank of the 
Appalachee River, and ran nearly South to a noted ford on 
Chatto-chucco-hatchee now called Murder Creek ; thence 
inclining slightly to the East to a point where a noted path 
(leading from Rock Landing to Ocmulgee Old Towns) crossed 
Commissioner s Creek; thence inclining still more to the East, 
to where the Uchee path crossed Palmetto Creek ; and thence 
down the creek to its mouth. This territory now includes 
parts of Morgan, Putnam, Baldwin, Jones, Wilkinson, and 
Laurens Counties. It was divided into 10 Land Districts 5 in 
Baldwin and 5 in Wilkinson ; and the Districts were divided 
into Lots of 202^ acres each. 

The second portion of this Lottery was then called Wayne 
County. It began at the mouth of Goose Creek on the south 
bank of the Altamaha River, running south 3 west, a direct 
line, to Ellicott s Mound on the Florida line, and included all 
eastward of that line to Mclntosh, Glynn, and Camden 
Counties, the lower end of this body being defined by the 
tortuous course of the St. Mary s River. It was divided into 
3 land districts, and these into lots of 490 acres each. It now 
includes parts of Wayne and Charlton Counties. 

Id Lottery. Lands acquired from the Creek Indians by 
Treaty of Washington of November 14th, 1805, and, under Act 



THIRD LAND LOTTERY. 161 

of June 26th, 1806, was distributed by Lottery in 1807, and 
embraced all the territory between the Oconee and Ocmulgee 
Rivers not included in the first Lottery, and South of (the pres 
ent) Walton and Newton Counties. This territory was added 
to Baldwin and Wilkinson, by which these two counties then 
constituted all the land South of the present lines of Walton and 
Newton, and between the Oconee and Ocmulgee. The divid 
ing line between the two counties as then constituted began 
at Fort Wilkinson on the Oconee, a short distance below 
Milledgeville, and ran South 45 West to the Ocmulgee River. 
All above this line was Baldwin, and all below was Wilkinson. 
The territory included in this second Lottery was divided into 
38 Land Districts, and these into lots of 202^ acres each. It 
now includes, either in whole or in part, the Counties of Mor 
gan, Jasper, Putnam, Jones, Wilkinson, Twiggs, Pulaski, 
Laurens, Telfair, and Montgomery. 

3d Lottery. Lands acquired from the Creek Indians by 
Treaties of Fort Jackson, August 9th, 1814, and the Creek 
Agency on Flint River, of January 22d, 1818, comprising most 
of the southern and south-western portions of the State ; and 
land acquired from the Cherokees by Treaty of the Cherokee 
Agency, July 8th, 1817, and situated in the northern portion of 
the State all distributed by Lottery of 1820 under Act of 
December 15th, 1818. The southern part of this Lottery was 
divided into Early, Irwin, and Appling Counties. It embraced 
the entire southern portion of the State West of Wayne, and. 
included the present Counties of Decatur, Thomas, Brooks, 
Lowndes, Echols, Clinch, Ware, Pierce, Appling, Coffee, 
Irwin, Berrien, Colquitt, Dougherty, Mitchell, Baker, Cal- 
houn, Early, and Miller ; and parts of Charlton, Wayne, 
Wilcox, Worth, and Clay. This territory was defined on the 
North by a line commencing at the mouth of Sommochichi 
Creek on the East side of the Chattahoochee River, and run 
ning due East on the line which divides Randolph, Terrell, and 
Lee Counties from Calhoun and Dougherty, to a point 2f 
miles East of Flint River. A line from thence due South 
to Florida, marked the eastern line of Early County, which 
then occupied the whole south-west corner of the State. 
Then continuing the above-named Northern boundary-line 
from the corner of Early County, due east, to a point near the 



162 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

middle of (now) Worth County, and from thence North 45 
East, to the Ocmulgee River, a little South of the mouth of 
Cypress Creek in Dodge County ; thence down the Ocmulgee 
and Altamaha to the mouth of Goose Creek on the Wayne 
County line. All this large tract between Wayne County on 
the East and Early on the West, was divided by a line begin 
ning on the South side of the Ocmulgee at Blackshear s Ford 
(nearly South of Jacksonville, Telf air County), and running due 
South to Florida West of this line being Irwin and East of it 
Appling County. Early County was divided into 12 Land 
Districts, and these into lots of 250 acres each; Irwin into 16 
Districts and Appling into 12 the Districts in the last two 
counties being divided into lots of 490 acres each. 

The territory in the northern portion of the State included 
in this Lottery was designated as Walton, Gwinnett, Hall, and 
Habersham Counties. Its boundaries were strangely irregular. 
Beginning at High Shoals, the line ran South-west along the 
upper line of Morgan and Jasper Counties to the Ulcofauhat- 
chee (or Alcovy) River ; thence up said river to a point a few 
miles North of the Georgia Railroad; thence following the old 
Hightower Trail to the Chattahoochee River ; thence up the 
river to the mouth of the Souquee ; thence by a line North to 
the Tallulah River ; thence down Tallulah to its junction with 
the Chattooga ; thence South to the Chattahoochee Ridge ; 
thence South-west along said Ridge to Hog Mountain ; and 
thence down the Appalachee River to High Shoals. Walton 
and Gwinnett Counties were then defined by lines very nearly 
as they are now. Hall was a very narrow strip on the South 
east side of the Chattahoochee, between Gwinnett and Ha 
bersham. All this territory was divided into 13 Land Districts 
whose lines were parallel to the dividing lines of Walton and 
Gwinnett. The Districts were divided into lots of 250 acres 
each. 

4t7i Lottery. This was of a small portion of the lands 
acquired from the Cherokee Indians by Treaty of Washington 
of February 27th, 1819, and distributed about December or 
January, 1820-21, under Act of December 19th, 1819. It con 
sisted of additions to Hall and Habersham Counties and all 
of Rabun County. It was defined by the Chestatee River, 
commencing at its junction with the Chattahoochee, and 



FIFTH AND SIXTH LAND LOTTERIES. 163 

following very nearly its course to the Blue Ridge; then follow 
ing the Ridge to the North Carolina line; then following the 
lines dividing Georgia from North and South Carolina to the 
junction of Chattooga and Tallulah Rivers. It included all of 
(the present) Rabun and White Counties, small portions of 
Habersham and Lumpkin, and all of Hall North of the Chat 
tahoochee. The territory by this Act added to Hall was 
divided into 3 Land Districts, and the lots having 250 acres 
each. The part added to Habersham was divided into 6 Dis 
tricts, and Rabun County into 5 Districts. The 5th and 6th 
Districts of Habersham, and the 1st, 3d, 4th, and 5th of Rabun, 
were divided into lots of 490 acres; and the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 
4th of Habersham, and the 2d of Rabun, into lots of 250 acres 
each. 

5th Lottery. This Lottery was of lands acquired from the 
Creek Indians by Treaty of Indian Springs, January 8th, 1821, 
and distributed under Act of May 15th, 1821, by Lottery drawn 
near the close of that year, and was then divided into Dooly, 
Houston,, Monroe, Fayette, and Henry Counties. It consisted 
of all the territory between the Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers, 
and extended from the Chattahoochee River on the North to 
the line of the third Lottery on the South. It embraced the 
present Counties of Dooly, Houston, Crawford, Monroe, Upson, 
Pike, Butts, Spalding, Fayette, Clayton, Henry, De Kalb, 
Fulton, and Campbell, and parts of Newton, Coweta, Macon, 
Worth,. Wilcox,, Pulaski, and Bibb. Each of the 5 original 
Counties named in the Act was divided into Land Districts 9 
miles square,, and these into lots of 202^ acres each. 

th Lottery. This Lottery was of land acquired from the 
Creek Indians by Treaty of Indian Springs, February 12th, 1825, 
and was distributed by Lottery of 1827, under Act of June 9th, 
1825. It consisted of all the territory between the Flint and 
Chattahoochee Rivers North of the 3d Lottery line, and 
extended North beyond the Chattahoochee to the Cherokee 
Indian boundary. The criminal jurisdiction of the Counties 
of Dooly, Houston, Fayette, and Pike was extended to cover 
all this territory. It consists of the present Counties of Quit- 
man y Randolph, Terrell, Lee, Sumter, Webster, Stewart, Chat 
tahoochee, Marion, Schley, Taylor, Talbot, Muscogee, Harris, 
Meriwether, Troup, Heard, and Carroll, and parts of Haralson, 



164 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

Douglas, Coweta, Macon, and Clay. It was divided into 5 
Sections, the 1st being attached to the criminal jurisdiction of 
Dooly, the 2d to Houston, the 3d to Pike, the 4th to Fayette, 
and the 5th to Pike Counties. The Sections were divided into 
Land Districts 9 miles square, and these into lots of 202^ acres 
each. 

*lih Lottery. This was of lands acquired from the Cherokee 
Indians by Treaty of Washington, February 27th, 1819, com 
prising the entire north-western portion of the State, or all 
the territory of Georgia not included in the Head Right Coun 
try, and previous Lotteries. It was known that Gold existed 
in paying quantities in this territory, and on December 2d, 
1830, the Legislature authorized the Governor to take posses 
sion of the Gold Lands and punish all who should trespass upon 
them. 

The entire territory was called Cherokee County, and was 
divided into 4 Sections. The 1st was all East of a line begin 
ning 36 miles AVest of the north-west corner of Rabun County 
on the line of North Carolina, and running due South to the 
Chattahoochee River. The 2d was all to the West of the fore 
going line, and East of a line beginning on the line of Tennessee, 
27 miles West of 1st Section, and running due South to the 
Southern Cherokee boundary in what is now Douglas County. 
The 3d was defined by a line commencing 27 miles further 
West and running due South to the southern Cherokee bound 
ary in what is now Haralson County ; and the 4th was the 
remainder of the Cherokee country between that line and the 
State of Alabama. The Act of December 15th, 1830, author 
ized its survey and distribution. The 4 Sections were divided 
into Land Districts 9 miles square, and the lots into 160 acres 
each, and distributed by Lottery of March, 1833 (except the 
Gold region, which was distributed by the next lottery). 

8th. The Gold Lottery. That portion of the Cherokee Pur 
chase which was known or supposed to contain Gold, was 
divided into 40-acre lots under Act of December 24th, 1831, the 
drawing taking place in July, 1833. It consisted of the follow 
ing Land Districts in then Cherokee County viz.: In the 1st 
Section, Districts No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. In 
the 2d Section, Districts No, 1, 2, 3, 15, 16, 18, 19, and 21. 
In the 3d Section, Districts No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 17, 18, 19, 20, 



BANKS RAILROADS CANALS. 165 

and 21 ; and in the 4th Section, Districts No. 1, 2, 3, 16, 
and 17. 

These several Lotteries are defined on the map accompanying 
this work by red lines, and are properly numbered. 



BANKS. 

In 1860 there were 25 Banks in Georgia, with an actual 
capital of $9,028,078. 

During the war, the Banks invested their funds in Confede 
rate bonds and securities to a very large extent. One of the 
results of the war, therefore, was to make a clean sweep of the 
Banks only two surviving the wreck. These were the Georgia 
Railroad and the Central Railroad Banks. Being connected 
with strong and wealthy corporations, whose banking capital 
constituted only a small portion of their entire capital, they 
survived. 

At this time (1876), there are 37 banking institutions having 
State Charters. These have no circulation, and do only a dis 
count and deposit business. The reports of their condition at 
this writing (November, 1876) have not been received, and can 
not be given. 

There are in the State 12 National Banks, having, on Octo 
ber 1st, 1876, a Capital of $2,334,540; Surplus, $460,901; Circu 
lation, $1,803,753 ; Individual Deposits, $1,653,150; Govern 
ment Deposits, $80,124 ; and their Loans and Discounts were 
$2,719,204. For this information, we are indebted to the 
courtesy of Hon. John Jay Knox, Comptroller of the Currency, 
Washington, D. C. 



THE RAILROADS AND CANALS OF GEORGIA. 

The following pages contain a brief statement of the loca 
tion, condition, etc., of all the railroads in Georgia ; also the 
most prominent features of the history of railroad-making in 
the State. As before stated, there are about 2,400 miles of 
road within the State s limits, or about one mile of road to every 
500 inhabitants. If uniformly distributed, an average county 
would have about 18 miles of road ; the average distance of 



166 HAXD-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

every farm from a railroad would be 6 miles, and the greatest 
distance 12 miles. 

THE WEST E EX AXD ATLANTIC RAILROAD, OR STATE ROAD. 
This important line is wholly a State enterprise, built with 
money from the Treasury, and entirely owned by the State. 
It was undertaken by Act of December 21st, 1836, after a severe 
struggle and a greatly prolonged debate extending through 
several days a thing then almost unprecedented in Georgia, 
in which a number of the first minds of the State participated. 
The " Railroad Fever," if it may be so termed, was then at 
full heat. 

The Georgia Railroad was chartered December 27th, 1831, as 
" The Augusta and Eatonton Turnpike and Railroad Co.," to 
build a road from Augusta to Eatonton. In 1833, it was author 
ized to construct branches of the road to Eatonton, Madison, 
and Athens. In 1835, banking privileges were given the Com 
pany by an Act still further amending the Charter (the work of 
building the road being then in progress). A few extracts 
will show that our people then (as they do now) regarded a 
line of transportation through Georgia to its coast, the most 
practicable natural outlet for the surplus products of the West 
and North-west ; and for which the State road was finally built. 

This amendment, and the privilege of carrying on a Banking 
business by the Georgia Railroad, were granted with the view 
of connecting the Athens branch thereof with a " railroad 
which the people of the West have in contemplation, to make 
a communication between the city of Cincinnati and the 
Southern Atlantic Coast;" and as the "best route for said 
communication is believed to be through the State of Georgia," 
and the building " of the said Georgia Railroad is now in prog 
ress, and will be an important link in said connection ;" and 
this condition was annexed: "provided the continuation of said 
road beyond Athens, so as to connect with the Cincinnati road, 
shall be steadily prosecuted." 

The Central Railroad was chartered December 20th, 1833, as 
" The Central Railroad and Canal Company of Georgia," 
authorizing the construction of a Railroad and Canal, or either, 
from Savannah to Macon. This charter was also amended in 
1835, by granting banking privileges, the road being under 
construction at the time. 



EARLY R.R. HISTORY IN GEORGIA. 167 

The people of Georgia were then in a more prosperous con 
dition than they ever were before ; but notwithstanding 
money was abundant for all ordinary purposes, and the people 
comparatively free from debt, it was difficult to find enough 
persons having sufficient confidence in the success of new and 
untried enterprises to invest their money to the extent of 
several millions of dollars. The " Georgia" and the " Central " 
roads were making rather slow, though steady progress, not 
being rapidly pushed forward to completion. 

The advantages of easy and rapid travel, and transportation 
of produce and merchandise, were well understood ; and a 
short cut to the great West, without going round by Philadel 
phia or New York or New Orleans, was a grand object at 
which the statesmen of Georgia aimed. Those who keenly 
felt the importance of this direct communication with the 
West, after carefully considering the subject, determined 
upon making it a State enterprise, and the matter was pre 
sented to the Georgia Legislature in 1836. 

It was earnestly supported by William W. Gordon, Charles 
J. Jenkins, Andrew J. Miller, Edward Young Hill, Iverson L. 
Harris, and, last, but not least, Alexander H. Stephens, who 
closed the debate in the House. It was his first session in the 
Georgia Legislature, and his speech on this measure was his 
debut his first effort in that body. 

The bill passed the House by a majority of only 3 votes. 
Its declared object was to establish " a Railroad communica 
tion as a State work, and with the funds of the State, to be 
made from some point on the Tennessee River, commencing 
at or near Rossville, in the most direct and practicable route, 
to some point on the south-eastern bank of the Chattahoochee 
River, which shall be the most eligible for the extension of 
branch roads thence to Athens, Madison, Milledgeville, 
Forsyth, and Columbus." 

It was declared that said road " shall be known and dis 
tinguished as the Western and Atlantic Railroad of the State 
of Georgia," signifying that it was intended to connect the 
West with the Atlantic coast ; and the Act appropriated 
8290,000 to be expended in the work during the year 1837. 
Thus was commenced this great State enterprise. 

It was estimated at the time that it would cost $4,500,000. 



168 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The means of ascertaining what it has cost the State are not 
attainable. The Comptroller-General in 1859 made an effort 
to do so, and found that $4,441,532.15 had been appropriated 
from the State Treasury, besides large siims of its own earn 
ings paid out for construction that never came into the 
State Treasury. A committee of the Legislature in 1865, 
after investigating the matter as far as convenient, reported it 
had cost $7,849,224.68. Its cost is generally set down at 
$8,000,000. During the year 1860, its net earnings paid into 
the State Treasury were $450,000. 

But like all property owned and operated by a State or any 
government, it has, a part of the time, been abused and mis 
managed, and caused dissatisfaction and contention in the 
Legislature ; and the people have several times been exercised 
upon the question of what to do with the road. The panic 
and crash of 1840, followed by hard times, caused many to 
favor its sale and abandonment altogether as a State enter 
prise. This proposition was distinctly made in both Houses of 
the Legislature in 1843, and very nearly succeeded. The 
Senate passed resolutions by a majority of 14, declaring " that 
it is expedient and proper to sell and dispose of the Western 
and Atlantic Railroad," and specified the terms upon which 
the sale should be effected one of which was that it should be 
sold for $1,000,000, to be paid in annual instalments. A bill 
to continue the work was passed in the House by a majority 
of one only which measure finally passed the Senate and 
became a law. 

At that time, there had been expended $2,916,008.28 ; the 
road had been finished and the cars were running 33 miles, 
beginning at Atlanta (then Marthasville) ; the cross-ties laid 
52 miles from Marthasville ; the iron was ready to lay 
that distance ; and the grading its whole length was nearly 
complete. The Georgia Railroad was then finished and in 
operation from Augusta beyond Madison, more than 100 
miles ; the Athens branch entirely finished and in operation, 
the work being energetically pushed to make the junction 
with the State Road at Marthasville, now Atlanta ; and the 
Monroe Railroad, now the Macon and Western, was being 
pressed to completion from Macon to Atlanta. 



GEORGIA RAILROAD. 169 

Thus narrowly was this enterprise saved to the State in the 
face of these prospects. 

In compliance with an Act of the Legislature, the road and 
all of its property were leased to a Company for 20 years for 
$300,000 per annum, in December, 1870 ; and this Company 
now have possession of and are operating it. The rental has 
been promptly paid at the end of every month. Its receipts 
for the year 1872 were $1,590,245.37 ; and operating expenses, 
$1,440,687.31. Ex-Governor Joseph E. Brown is President of 
the Company, and General William McRae Superintendent. 
The office of the Company is in Atlanta. The road has ex 
tensive eastern and western connections. Its length is 138 
miles from Atlanta, Ga., to Chattanooga, Tenn. 

THE GEOEGIA RAILROAD. This important road from Augusta 
to Atlanta, 170 miles long, with branches 1 from Barnett 
Station to Washington, 18 miles ; and 1 from Union Point 
to Athens, 39 miles in all 228 miles was the first road char 
tered in the State that was actually built viz. : on December 
27th, 1831, as the " Augusta and Eatonton Turnpike and Rail 
road Company." 

On December 21st, 1833, the charter was amended, by which 
the Company was authorized to construct a Railroad or Turn 
pike road from Augusta, with branches to Eatonton, Madison, 
and Athens ; and " if the Company herein specified should 
deem it profitable to construct common roads, and use steam 
carriages thereon, they shall have the power to do so." 

The charter was amended on December 18th, 1835. The pre 
amble to this Act recites : 

" Whereas, the people of the West have in contemplation to 
make a communication between the city of Cincinnati and the 
Southern Atlantic coast by means of a Railroad ; and, 

" Whereas, the best route for said communication is believed 
to be through the State of Georgia ; and, 

"Whereas, the building of the Georgia Railroad is. now in 
progress, and will be an important link in said communication,! 
etc., etc., therefore banking privileges were granted the 
Company, 

" Provided, however, that the continuation of said road 
beyond Athens so as to connect with the Cincinnati Road 



170 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

shall be steadily prosecuted, so soon as the Company shall have 
satisfactory evidence that the said connection can be formed." 

This connection was never made. The Legislature, at its 
next session in 1836, undertook to build the Western and 
Atlantic Railroad on the part of the State to form this very 
desirable connecting link , therefore that portion of the 
Georgia Railroad between Union Point and Athens became 
the " Athens Branch," and the main line was directed to the 
place where Atlanta now stands, to form a junction with this 
" connecting link." 

Work was commenced on the Georgia Railroad early in 
1835. It was finished to Crawfordville, July 1st, 1838 ; to 
Greensboro, May 10th, 1839 ; to Madison in 1841 ; to Coving- 
ton in the Spring of 1845 ; and to Atlanta in September, 1845. 
The first passenger-train on this road reached Atlanta Septem 
ber 15th, 1845. 

The branch of the road to Athens was completed in Decem 
ber, 1841 ; and the branch to Washington in 1854. 

The road was prosperous from the first. J. Edgar Thomson, 
late President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, was the chief 
Engineer, and in its construction showed his great ability, and 
began the reputation which finally called him to the head of 
the greatest railroad corporation in America. In 1858, 13 
years after the road and its branches were completed, it had a 
surplus of more than half a million of dollars. 

Mr. Richard Peters, now of Atlanta, came from Phila 
delphia soon after Mr. Thomson, and was Locating Engineer, 
locating the road from Augusta to Greensboro, and was after 
ward the General Superintendent. 

This road has a large interest in the " Nashville and Chat 
tanooga Road " in Tennessee, and the road from Port Royal 
in South Carolina to Augusta, and by its connections greatly 
facilitates transportation and travel between St. Louis and 
the Atlantic coast, which is 235 miles shorter than from St. 
Louis to New York ; and Port Royal is one of the best sea 
ports on the continent. It can be entered at all times by the 
largest ships without a pilot. There is no expense, inconveni 
ence or delay of drayage at Port Royal. All freights are 
transferred directly from the cars into the ships, and vice 
versa. 



CENTRAL RAILROAD. 171 

The Georgia also controls and operates the Macon and 
Augusta Railroad from Macon to Camak, 74 miles. 

The cost of Building the Road is $4,253,048 40 

Capital Stock 4,200,000 00 

Funded Debt 615,500 00 

Average Gross Receipts per annum 1,300,000 00 

Average Operating Expenses 800,000 00 

Annual Dividend 8 per cent. 

Hon. John P. King is President. He has filled this office 
continuously since 1841. S. K. Johnson is Superintendent ; 
and Carlton Hillyer, Auditor. The principal office is at 
Augusta. 

THE CENTRAL RAILROAD or GEORGIA. This important rail 
way was built about the same time as that of the Georgia. It 
was chartered December 2()th, 1833 ; work commenced Novem 
ber, 1836, and was completed to Macon, October 13th, 1843, 
nearly 2 years before the Georgia was finished to Atlanta. It 
is a strong corporation, with extensive connections, and is one 
of the most important roads in the country. 

Its length from Savannah to Macon is 192 miles. This was 
the original chartered line of road. It also built a branch 
from Gordon to Milledgeville, 17.25 miles. In 1872, the Macon 
and Western Railroad, from Macon to Atlanta, 103 miles, in 
cluding the branch f rom Barnesville to Thomaston, 16.5 miles, 
was consolidated with the Central. During the present year 
(1876), the Savannah, Griffin, and North Alabama Railroad, 
from Griffin, on the Macon and Western, to Carrollton, Carroll 
County, 59.29 miles long, has become the property of the 
Central, thus making a total length of 388.29 miles actually 
owned by the Company. 

In 1852, it leased the road from Milledgeville to Eatonton, 
22 miles, and operates and controls it, virtually making a 
branch of the Central from Gordon, via Milledgeville to 
Eatonton, 39.25 miles. 

In 1862, it leased the Augusta and Savannah Railroad, from 
Augusta to Millen, on the Central Road, 53 miles, which it 
controls and operates. 

In 1871, it leased the South-western Railroad and branches 
as follows : Main line, Macon to Albany, 104 miles ; Branch, 



17^ HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

Fort Valley to Columbus, 71 miles ; Branch, Fort Valley to 
Perry, 11 miles ; Branch, Smith ville to Eufaula, Ala., 61 
miles ; Branch, Cuthbert to Fort Gaines, 22 miles ; Branch, 
Albany to Arlington, 37 miles : making a total of 306 
miles. 

It also leased the Vicksburg and Clayton Road from Eufaula, 
Ala., to Clayton, Ala., 21 miles. It also owns a half interest in 
the Western Railroad of Alabama, from West Point, Ga., to 
Selma, Ala., 138 miles, with branch from Columbus, Ga., to Ope- 
lijva, Ala,, 28 miles, or 166 miles in all. This road is owned 
jointly by the Central and the Georgia, obtained by joint pur 
chase at public sale, in April, 1875. 

It has also leased the Mobile and Girard Railroad, from 
Columbus, Ala., to Troy, Ala., 84 miles. It also owns a 
steamer on the Tombigbee River, plying between Columbus, 
Mississippi, and Demopolis, Ala. 

It also owns a line of steamers on the Chattahoochee River, 
plying between Columbus, Ga., and Appalachicola, Fla. These 
boats are worth $97,000. 

It also owns 6 steamships plying between New York and 
Savannah, involving a capital of $800,000. 

The income of the road for the year ending September 1st, 
1876, was $2,657,096.97, and its operating expenses, $1,635,- 
131.10. 

Its President is Wm. M. Wadley, and Superintendent Wm. 
Rogers ; principal office in Savannah. The principal office 
of the New York Steamship Line is in New York, Wm. R. 
Garretson being the Agent. 

The Capital Stock of the Central Railroad Company is $7,- 
500,000 ; its Bonded Indebtedness, $3,772,000. 

THE ATLANTA AND WEST POINT RAILROAD. From Atlanta 
to West Point on the Alabama line, connecting with the roads 
to Montgomery, Mobile, and New Orleans, 86.74 miles long. 
It was chartered and work commenced in 1851, and completed 
to West Point in 1857. Its cost was $1,200,129; Capital Stock, 
$1,232,200; Bonded Debt, $27,000; average gross earnings per 
annum, $407,000 ; and operating expenses, $304,000. Its 
dividends are 8 per cent per annum. Hon. John P. King, 
President of the Georgia Railroad, is also President of this 
Company, the Georgia Railroad owning a considerable share 



RAILROADS. 173 

of the stock. L. P. Grant is Superintendent, and "W. P. Orme, 
Treasurer. Its office is in Atlanta. 

THE MACON AND WESTERN RAILROAD. This road was 
chartered in 1833 as the Monroe Railroad Company, to run 
from Macon to Forsyth, in Monroe County. 

It was afterward extended to Atlanta, and its name changed 
to that of the " Macon and Western." It is 102.5 miles long, 
with branch from Barnesville to Thomaston in Upson County, 
16.5 miles, 119 miles in all. Bordering on the line of this road 
is the most populous part of Georgia. Its Cost and Capital is 
$2,500,000 ; Funded Debt, $150,000. 

In 1871, it was leased by the Central Railroad, and in 1872 
was consolidated with that Company. 

THE SOUTH-WESTERN RAILROAD. This important road, 
with its several branches, extends from Macon through South 
west Georgia to Columbus, Perry, Albany, Arlington, Cuth- 
bert, and Fort Gaines in Georgia, and Eufaula in Alabama ; 
in all, 306 miles long. It was chartered December, 1845 ; 
work commenced in 1847, and completed to Oglethorpe, 50 
miles, July 4th, 1851 ; since which, extensions and branches 
have been made from time to time. The branch from Albany 
to Blakely is now under way, being finished to Arlington. 
The Capital Stock of the road is $4,587,313. In 1871, the 
entire road, with its equipments, was leased to the Central for a 
long term of years. For further particulars, see Central Rail 
road. 

THE MACON AND AUGUSTA RAILROAD. This road extends 
from Macon, through Milledgeville, to Camak on the Georgia 
Railroad, 74 miles. It was chartered, and work commenced 
before the late war, which suspended operations with only a 
small portion of the track graded. It was completed March 
30th, 1871. Its cost was $2,678,717.09 ; Capital Stock, $1,971,- 
741; Bonded Debt, $770,000; average gross receipts per annum, 
$110,000 ; and average operating expenses, $100,000. It is 
controlled and operated by the Georgia Railroad. 

THE ATLANTIC AND GULF RAILROAD. The main line of 
this road is from Savannah to Bainb ridge, 237 miles, with 
branches from Lawton, Ga., to Live Oak, Fla., 48 miles, and 
from Thomasville to Albany, 60 miles 345 miles in all. It 
is a consolidation of several roads. The oldest charter was 



174 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

granted in December, 1847, and the road was completed in 
1868. Cost, $7,592,283 ; Capital, $3,693,200 ; Bonded Debt, 
$4,081,177 ; average gross earnings per annum, $922,000 ; and 
operating expenses, $624,000. Colonel John Screven is Presi 
dent ; office at Savannah. 

MACON AND BRUNSWICK RAILROAD. This line is from 
Brunswick to Macon, 187.5 miles, with a branch from Cochran s 
Depot to Hawkinsville, 10 miles : total, 197.5 miles. Its cost 
was $7,250,000; Capital Stock, $3,500,000; Bonded Debt, $3,- 
750,000. It was chartered, and 50 miles constructed before 
the war. The Legislature in 1866 authorized the Governor to 
endorse its bonds to the extent of $10,000 per mile of finished 
road, by which endorsements were made to the amount of 
$1,900,000. In 1870 a further endorsement of $600,000 was 
authorized and made, but a subsequent Legislature repudiated 
it because it was illegally made. The road defaulted in 
payment of interest upon the endorsed bonds, was seized by 
the Governor in July, 1873, and sold in June, 1875, the State 
becoming the purchaser at the price of $1,000,000 ; and it is 
now owned and operated by the State. 

Its average gross earnings are $324,528 per annum, and 
operating expenses, $282,063. It is located through a sparsely 
populated country, and the port of Brunswick is not a place 
of large trade. Its cost was nearly $37,000 per mile, making 
a debt and capital upon which no road through that section 
can pay interest. Its cost to the State is $9,645 per mile, upon 
which it pays well. It is well equipped, and the road Mid 
rolling stock are kept in fine condition. 

The State has provided for its private sale by Commissioners, 
appointed for that purpose. Dr. E. A. Flewellen is the Man 
ager; the office is in Macon. 

THE BRUNSWICK AND ALBANY RAILROAD. This road ex 
tends from Brunswick to Albany, 172 miles. It was char 
tered, a considerable portion of the grading done, and some 
of the track laid, previous to the war. 

After the war, very heavy State endorsements (to the 
amount of $23,000 per mile) of its bonds were procured, and 
the work commenced anew. It was projected to go to Eu- 
faula, Ala., completed to Albany, and most of the grading 
done for the entire length of the road. 



RAILROADS. 175 

Its Capital is $4,898,000, and Funded Debt $5,980,000, thus 
costing more than $63,000 per mile. It was built very largely 
with the proceeds. of the sale of the bonds, which were en 
dorsed by Governor Rufus B. Bullock. It was afterward 
proved that the endorsements were all made in plain violation 
of the law authorizing the same, and the bonds were repudi 
ated by the State. It defaulted in paying interest, was seized 
and sold, and was purchased by the foreign holders of the 
bonds, mostly residents of Germany, and now operated by 
them. 

Mr. Charles L. Schlatter is the Superintendent ; his office is 
at Brunswick. 

THE CHEROKEE RAILROAD. This road was chartered in 
1866, to run West from Cartersville on the W. & A. R.R. to 
Pryor, Ala., on the S. R. & D. R.R., 45 miles, as the Carters 
ville and Van Wert Railroad. In 1869, the Legislature* au 
thorized the endorsement of the bonds of the Company to the 
extent of $12,500 per mile, and changed its name. It was 
completed to Taylorsville, 15 miles; and from there to Rock- 
mart a narrow-gauge track of 8 miles was laid, and thus it has 
been operated for several years. 

The endorsed bonds being issued in violation of the law 
were repudiated by the State, and parties at interest are con 
tending in the courts for their several claims. It is in regular 
operation, and pays expenses and repairs. Its terminus is very 
near the great slate quarries of Polk County. Dr. S. F. 
Stephens, of Cartersville, is the Receiver and Superintendent: 

NORTH AND SOUTH RAILROAD. This road was chartered to 
run from Columbus via La Grange to Rome, 135 miles, in 
October,tl870, and organized to build a narrow-gauge road, 
the State agreeing to endorse its bonds to the amount of $12,- 
000 per mile. 

The first 20 miles were completed from Columbus to Kings 
ton, in .Harris County, January, 1873, and 40 miles more 
graded. The State endorsed its bonds to the amount of $240,- 
000, on which it failed to pay the interest ; and it was seized 
by the State April, 1874, and is still held and operated by it. 
The average gross receipts are $11,535.39 per annum, and 
average operating expenses $9,825.05 per annum. Its au 
thorized capital was $5,000,000, of which $386,319.14 was paid 



176 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

in, and it had a floating debt of some $200,000 before its fail 
ure. This first attempt to construct a narrow-gauge road in 
the State has, so far, resulted unfavorably^ Dr. E. A. Flew- 
ellen is Receiver, whose office is in Macon. 

THE NORTH-EASTERN RAILROAD OF GEORGIA. This road is 
projected from Athens, Ga., through Rabufi Gap to Knoxville, 
Tenn. It is completed and equipped from Athens to Lulu on 
the Atlanta and Richmond Air-Line Railroad, 40 miles. 
Work was commenced on it September, 1872, and completed 
to Lulu in September, 1876. Its President is A. K. Childs, 
and Superintendent James M. Edwards, the office being in 
Athens. The Company intend continuing the work next 
season. 

THE ATLANTA AND RICHMOND AIR-LINE RAILROAD. This 
road was chartered in 1857, surveys made, and a very small 
amount of grading done before the late war, but nothing fur 
ther till 1868, when work was resumed, and the road com 
pleted to Charlotte, K C., in 1573. Length, 265 miles 100 
miles of which is in Georgia. It passes, much of the way, 
through a region which was previously cut off from railroad 
facilities. 

It considerably shortens the length of the line from New 
York to New Orleans. Its Bonded Indebtedness is $6,868,000, 
and Capital Stock $7,500,000. It failed to pay the interest on 
its bonds, passed into the hands of a receiver, and is to be sold 
December 5th, 1876. Its office is in Atlanta. John H. Fisher, 
Receiver, and John B. Peck, Master of Transportation. It has 
only a limited supply of rolling-stock of its own, and has been 
operated by hiring cars, engines, etc., from other roads. Its 
earnings have been from $65,000 to $80,000 per mpnth, and 
operating expenses $43,000 to $50,000 per month, including 
the hire of rolling-stock and repairs of the road. 

THE SELMA, ROME, AND DALTON RAILROAD. This road ex 
tends from Dalton, Ga., to Selma, Ala., 237 miles, only 75 or 
80 miles being in Georgia. 

It passes through one of the richest sections of the State. 
Its office is in Selma, Ala. 

THE ROME RAILROAD. This road is from Kingston, on the 
Western and Atlantic Railroad, to Rome, 20 miles, passing 



RAILROADS. 177 

along the Etowah Valley, a rich and highly productive sec 
tion. Its Capital Stock is $250,843. It is economically 
managed, pays good dividends, and is out of debt. The office 
of the Company is at Rome. C. M. Pennington, Superintend 
ent. 

THE ELBERTON AIR-LINE RAILROAD. This line is 51 miles 
long, from Toccoa City on the Atlanta and Richmond Air- 
Line Railroad to Elberton, in Elbert County. It is graded 
and the cross-ties ready, but the iron, track-laying, and equip 
ments are yet to be supplied. It has no State endorsement, 
and does not owe any .thing, all the work thus far done being- 
paid for in full. Efforts are being made to have it equipped 
during the coming season. It passes through a productive and 
wealthy portion of the State. 

Savannah is the leading distributing centre of supplies from 
the East, and the leading point for exports ; Atlanta the cen 
tre of supplies from the West, such as stock and provisions, 
etc., and is a great inland distributing point. 

And thus it appears that the activity and enterprise excited 
by Governor Troup s schemes of internal improvement by a 
system of canals, were transferred to the new mode of trans 
portation by rail. 

A liberal policy toward the ngricultural interests has been 
pursued by all -the railroads in the State in giving low rates on 
fertilizers, and a wise liberality in the free passage of dele 
gates to the semi-annual conventions of the State Agricultural 
Society, an institution which greatly contributes to the intelli 
gent industry of farmers, and, by thus aiding production, in 
creases transportation. 

THE AUGUSTA CANAL. This is a great work performed by 
the city of Augusta for the purpose of affording sufficient facili 
ties for making it a prominent manufacturing point, especially 
of cotton. 

The city is a great inland cotton mart, has 21,000 inhabit 
ants, and real and personal estate to the amount of $20,000,000. 

A few public-spirited citizens projected it. Among them 
Hon. John P. King, Colonel H. II. Gumming, and Wm. M. 
D Autignac. A canal was commenced in 1845, and completed 
in 1847, having 40 feet surface width, 20 feet bottom, and 5 



178 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

feet depth, with a total mechanical effect of about 600 horse 
power. It was soon found to be entirely too small to supply 
the demand, and in process of time its enlargement was de 
termined upon. 

Work for this purpose was commenced in March, 1872, and 
the enlarged canal completed July, 1875. 

It is 9 miles long, drawing an inexhaustible supply of 
water from the Savannah River. It is 150 feet wide at the 
top, 106 feet wide at the bottom, and 11 feet depth of 
water. Its mechanical minimum is 14,000 horse-power. It is 
available in different localities for water-power from 13 to 40 
feet fall. 

The plan of the city is to lease this power to manufacturers 
of any kind who desire to use it. A number of enterprises 
are already located and at work upon it, such as Cotton and 
Flour Mills, Fertilizer Manufactory, Machine Works, etc. It is 
one of the most convenient manufacturing sites in the whole 
South, furnishing unsurpassed facilities for water-power and 
convenience of transportation. 

THE SAVANNAH AND OGECHEE CANAL. This was the first 
work of internal improvement, or of any inland transporta 
tion, constructed in Georgia. 

On December 20th, 1824, the Legislature authorized its 
construction, and work was soon commenced, but did not 
progress rapidly. After 4 years, in December, 1828, the 
Legislature passed an Act reciting, that "Georgia is deeply in 
terested in carrying into effect every enterprise having for its 
object internal improvement and giving facility to the com 
merce and transportation of the products of the different 
counties in this State;" and "whereas the laudable efforts 
made for this purpose by the Savannah, Ogechee, and Alta- 
maha Canal Company, are likely, as appears by their memorial, 
to prove abortive; . . . and whereas the interest and 
honor of the State demand that this first attempt at internal 
improvement should not fail for want of means to carry it 
on" therefore, the Governor was authorized to subscribe 
$44,000 to the stock of the Company. It was finished to the 
Ogechee River, 16 miles, and is still in operation. It is 
paying property and very useful to the city of Savannah. 



EDUCATION" ix GEORGIA. 179 



PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM OF GEORGIA. 

Georgia has, from her earliest history, as her records will 
show, been alive to the importance of educating the children 
of the State, and has always (previous to the late war) made 
every necessary provision for this purpose. 

For many years there were no public schools or free educa 
tion to all. It was not needed. Nearly all of our people 
were fully able and willing to educate their children, and did 
so ; and the Legislature made provision for paying for the tui 
tion of all who were not thus able, and did so regularly and 
promptly, to the satisfaction of the public. 

The fund out of which this was paid was derived from 
dividends on stock, which the State owned in a number of the 
banks in Georgia. The war swept away the banks, and thus 
the entire source of this income was utterly lost. 

Our people, before the war, were beginning to feel the need 
of and were looking to the establishment of public or free 
schools, and had taken the first steps in that direction. On 
December llth, 1858, the Legislature set apart $100,000 
annually of the net earnings of the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad (State property) for educational purposes. It also 
provided that when any portion of the public debt of the 
State was paid, bonds of the State of a like amount as those 
taken up should be executed by the Governor and deposited 
with the Secretary of State, who should hold them as 
Trustee of the Educational Fund, the interest thereon at 6 
per cent to be appropriated to school purposes. 

These measures contemplated at no distant day a fund suffi 
cient to establish free schools throughout the State ; and it 
would undoubtedly have so resulted long since, but for the war. 
The provisions of the law went so far as to allow the people 
of any County to establish free schools and use its share of 
the funds for this purpose; and in 1860 in one county 
(Forsyth), free schools were established and successfully car 
ried on. 

The Constitution of 1868 (the present Constitution) requires 
that " the General Assembly, at its first session after the 
adoption of this Constitution, shall provide a thorough system 



180 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

of general education to be forever free to all the children of 
the State." For an Educational Fund, it sets apart the poll 
tax, a special tax on shows and exhibitions and the sale of 
spirituous and malt liquors, and the proceeds from the commu 
tation for military service ; " and if these sources prove insuffi 
cient, the General Assembly shall have power to levy such 
general tax upon the property of the State as may be neces 
sary ; and there shall be established as soon as practicable 
one or more schools in each school district in the State." Such 
are the provisions of the Constitution. 

Although the State Government, including the Legislature, 
was in the hands of that class of men who made the present 
Constitution with the foregoing provisions, the Legislature 
did not " at its first session," provide for the thorough system 
of free education as the Constitution required. It was not till 
October 13th, 1870, that a school law was enacted. This Act 
established a State Board of Education, to be composed of 
the Governor, the Attorney-General, the Secretary of State, 
Comptroller-General, and State School Commissioner. It re 
quired the Trustees of schools in their respective districts to 
make all necessary arrangements for the instruction of all the 
youth of the district the Whites and Blacks to be in separate 
schools. They were to provide the same facilities for each ; 
" but the children of the white and colored races shall not be 
taught together." 

It provided as an Educational Fund, in addition to the items 
named in the Constitution, one half the net earnings of the 
Western and Atlantic Railroad, and required the State Board 
of Education to ascertain and report annually what amount in 
addition to the foregoing, should be raised annually by taxa 
tion. 

The year following (1871) the State School Commissioner 
proceeded to establish public schools in the State. 

During this time the taxes arising from polls, shows, etc., 
was paid into the State Treasury. On October ]st, 1871, the 
fund from this source alone amounted to $327,083.09. 

The Legislature, on July 28th, appropriated this money to 
other purposes, and caused bonds of the State to be depos 
ited with the State Treasurer in lieu thereof, which were to be 
sold, and the proceeds of their sale to be used to meet ap- 



PUBLIC SCHOOL FUND. 181 

propriations for school purposes. These bonds proved to be 
of a worthless issue, which had, for some time, been on the 
market for sale, but could not be sold, because they were 
known to have been illegally issued. Thus this fund was lost 
to the cause of education. 

In January, 1872, the present State School Commissioner, 
Hon. Gustavus J. Orr, was inducted into his office under these 
embarrassing circumstances. He could not establish any 
schools that year, for the means were wanting ; but in 1873, 
funds sufficient had accumulated to establish schools for three 
months, and the same has been done every year since. 

In 1875, the attendance was 169,916, of which 114,648 were 
white and 55,268 black. The School Fund for 1875 was $291,- 
319. The Fund for 1876 is about the same. 

The school population for 1875 was 394,037 of whom 218,- 
733 were white and 175,304 black. 

The present sources of the School Fund, under existing law, 
are : 

1 . All Poll Tax. This, for the year 1875, if all collected, would 
have amounted to $199,550 ; but there was collected only 
about $130,000. 

2. Tax on Shows, Exhibitions, etc. This for 1874 was 
$2,069.50; for 1875, $3,139.91. (No tax has yet been levied 
upon the sale of liquors.) 

3. One half the net earnings of the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad. This, at present, is $150,000 per annum. 

The Constitution authorizes a general tax upon all the prop 
erty of the State, to make up a sufficient fund. This has not 
yet been done. 

The present law requires that when any school fund is re 
ceived, from whatever source derived, " it shall be kept sepa 
rate and distinct from other funds," and be " used for edu 
cational purposes and none other, and shall not be invested in 
bonds of the State or in any other stock." 

There are public schools established under local laws in 7 
counties, embracing the cities of Savannah, Atlanta, Augusta, 
Macon, Columbus, Griffin, and Brunswick, which are kept up 
continuously. In these there are 68 ungraded schools, 70 
graded, and 9 high schools. There were in 1875 admitted to 
these schools, whites males, 4,330 ; females, 4,428: blacks 



182 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

males, 3,324 ; females, 3,633. The average monthly cost of 
tuition per scholar in these schools was $1.23. 

In Georgia, in 1875, there were 820 private elementary 
schools, having the following attendance : whites males, 11,- 
186; females, 10,089: blacks males, 2,118 ; females, 2,058. 
Total whites, 21,275 ; blacks, 4,1 76. The average monthly 
cost per scholar of tuition in these schools was $1.88. 

In 1875 there were 104 private high schools, having 171 tu 
tors and 5,379 pupils; of which 3,087 were males and 2,292 
females all white. The average monthly cost of tuition per 
scholar in these was $3.13. 



UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

A short history and statement of the condition of some of 
the Colleges of the State are here given. These are not only 
interesting, but show what Georgia has done and is doing for 
the higher education of her youth male and female white 
and black. % 

UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. On July 8th, 1783, the Leg 
islature of Georgia assembled in Augusta. The Governor, 
Hon. Lyman Hall, in his message on that occasion, said : 

" In addition, therefore, to wholesome laws restraining vice, every en 
couragement ought to be given to introduce religion and learned clergy 
to perform divine worship in honor to God, and to cultivate principles of 
religion and virtue among our citizens. For this purpose, it will be your 
wisdom to lay an early foundation for endowing seminaries of learning ; 
nor can you, I conceive, lay in a better than by a grant of a sufficient 
tract of land that may, as in other governments, hereafter, by lease or 
otherwise, raise a revenue sufficient to support such valuable institu 
tions." 

This idea or suggestion of granting land to endow "such 
valuable institutions" was the germ from which the University 
of Georgia was developed. This was less than three months 
after the close of the Revolutionary War. 

Early the next year 1784 the Legislature assembled in 
Savannah, and on February 25th, less than one year after the 
war, passed an Act to lay out 2 new counties, to be called 
"Washington" and " Franklin," and required the County Sur 
veyors thereof to lay off 20,000 acres in each of these counties 



FOUNDING THE STATE UNIVERSITY. 183 

in 5,000 acre tracts, or 40,000 acres in all, " for the endow 
ment of a college or seminary of learning," said land to be of 
the first quality, and to be exempt from taxation. 

On January 27th, 1785, the Legislature at Savannah passed 
an Act " by the Representatives of the Freemen of the State 
of Georgia in General Assembly met, and by the authority 
of the same, ... for the more full and complete es 
tablishment of a public seat of learning in this State." The 
preamble recites that a free government can " only be happy 
where the public principles and opinions are properly direct 
ed ;" that among the " first objects" should be to " encour 
age and support the principles of religion and morality, and 
early to place the youth under the forming hand of society, 
that by instruction they may be moulded to the love of virtue 
and good order." They therefore enacted that the " general 
superintendence" of the " public seat of learning" be " com 
mitted and entrusted to a Board of Visitors and a Board of 
Trustees, which two Boards united . . . shall compose the 
Senatus Academicus of the University of Georgia." 

All the officers of the University were required to be " of 
the Christian religion," and to " publicly take the oath of al 
legiance and fidelity ;" and the Trustees were prohibited from 
" excluding any person of any religious denomination what 
ever from the free and equal liberty and advantages of edu 
cation, . . . and that no one shall be excluded from any 
of the privileges and immunities of the University on account 
of his sentiments in religion or being of a different religious 
profession." 

On the llth day of March following, it was " ordered that 
the Secretary of State do immediately make out 8 warrants 
for the same that is to say, 4 for 5,000 acres each in Franklin 
County, and 4 for 5,000 acres each in Washington County," 
thus setting apart the 40,000 acres to found and endow a State 
University. 

On February 3d, 1786, an Act was passed by the Legis 
lature at Augusta, for laying out Greene County within the 
limits of Franklin County, and including a portion of the Uni 
versity land. It authorized the Trustees to lay out the town 
of Greensboro and sell off lots, the proceeds to be applied to 
the University, the intention being to locate it at that place; 



184 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

but it did not meet with entire favor. The lands were sold 
as opportunity offered, and the money invested, and in June, 
1801, the funds were sufficient to pay a President of the Uni 
versity. Josiah Meigs was chosen, and at once entered upon 
the duties of his position, though no building had been erect 
ed and the site not even fixed. 

In November, 1801, a committee of the Trustees appointed 
for the purpose reported the selection of the site where the 
college now stands; Hon. John Milledge had conveyed to them 
700 acres of land, on which the town of Athens is princi 
pally located, which were sold off in lots for the benefit of the 
college. The site was then on the Western borders of civili 
zation, but results show that the selection was a wise one. 

The first commencement exercises took place in May, 1804, 
upon the campus, under an arbor formed of the branches of 
trees. Here the first class, 10 in number, graduated, the scene 
being witnessed by some friends of the Institution, and a 
number of spectators. 

The University lands were sold largely for notes secured 
by mortgage on the land ; but by authority of an Act of 
December 16th, 1815, the Legislature took all these notes as a 
consideration for $100,000, and bound the State to pay the 
University perpetually an annuity of $8,000 interest at 8 
per cent on this endowment, which has been continued till 
this time. Thus was the University, through much patient 
labor, perseverance, and devotion to the great end in view, 
established. 

Rt. Rev. Wm. Bacon Stevens, Protestant Episcopal Bishop 
of Pennsylvania, justly remarks that Georgia, the last settled 
and the feeblest of the original 13, exposed by an extensive 
frontier to the incursions of Indians, French, and Spaniards, 
and 

" Looking upon the broad scope on which the University was planned, 
the sound principles on which it was based,the zealous efforts of its founders 
to make it stable and efficient, we must say that Georgia merits peculiar 
honor in being among the first of the States to make provision for a State 
University, and in passing most wholesome laws for securing to her sons 
the blessing of a liberal education on her own soil." 

Its presiding officers have been : Josiah Meigs, LL.D., Presi 
dent, 1801 to 1811; John Brown, D.D., President, 1811 to 
1816 ; Robert Finley, D.D., President, 1816 to 1817; Moses 



ENDOWMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY. 1 85 

Waddell, D.D., President, 1819 to 1829 ; Alonzo Church, 
D.D., President, 1829 to 1859; Andrew A. Lipscomb, D.D., 
LL.D., Chancellor, 1860 to 1874; Henry H. Tucker, D.D., 
Chancellor, 1874 to the present. 

It has now 5 Departments, 13 professors, and over 200 
students. These are exclusive of the Medical Department of 
the college, which is at Augusta, having over 60, and the North 
Georgia Agricultural College at Dahlonega, with nearly 250 
students. In the latter, tuition is entirely free. 

The college proper at Athens admits " 50 meritorious 
young men of limited means " to the college course without 
payment of tuition fees ; also young men who design to enter 
the ministry of any denomination whatever, provided they 
are in need of this aid to complete their education. A num 
ber of the most eminent men of the country were educated at 
.this Institution, which is justly ranked among the best in the 
country. 

The total value of property of the University is $228,000. 
The college has over 13,000 volumes in its Library; also the 
Gilmer Library, containing about 1000 volumes of valuable 
books, bequeathed by Hon. George R. Gilmer for 4 years 
Governor of the State, and a very ardent friend of the Univer 
sity. The two college societies also have fine libraries, con 
taining over 3000 volumes each. 

The endowment of the University is $128,350, besides the 
special endowment of the State College of Agriculture and 
the Mechanic Arts, which has an endowment derived from the 
sale of the Agriculture Land Scrip donated to the State by 
Congress, of $242,202.17, making the total endowment of the 
University $370,552.17. 

The State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts has 
provided for educating as many young men, residents of the 
State, as there are members of the Georgia Legislature (both 
Senators and Representatives), free of charge for tuition fees. 
Each student before entering this College must have a fair 
knowledge of English Grammar, Arithmetic, and Geography. 
There are three Departments of study viz. : Agriculture, En 
gineering, and Applied Chemistry. Each of these Departments 
has its regular course. 

There is also a Law School at Athens connected with the 
University. 



186 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

MERCER UNIVERSITY. In 1828, Josiah Penfield, a Deacon 
of the Baptist Church in Savannah, left a bequest of 
$2,500 to the Baptist Convention of the State of Georgia, 
provided that body would add to it a like sum, to establish a 
literary and theological institution in Georgia. This was an 
nounced to the Convention at its session at Milledgeville in 
March, 1829, and several prominent members at once contri 
buted and raised over $3,000 to secure this legacy. 

In 1832, the site for the school was selected in Greene 
County, and named " Penfield," in honor of the donor of the 
$2,500 ; and in 1833 the school was opened as a manual-labor 
school, by the name of Mercer Institute, in honor of Rev. Jesse 
Mercer, with Rev. B. M. Sanders as Principal, and Rev. John F. 
Hillyer, now of Texas, and Mr. I. O. McDaniel, now of Bar- 
tow County, Ga., as assistants. The school began with 100 
young men as students and an endowment of nearly $6,000. 
This was the beginning of Mercer University. 

A charter was obtained from the Legislature, December 29th, 
1836, to establish a college for the Baptist Denomination, at 
Washington, Ga. After due consideration, it was deemed 
best to concentrate the funds and efforts of the friends of 
education in the Baptist Church, and to raise Mercer Institute 
into a University ; and this policy was adopted. The college 
was opened in 1838. Tlie manual-labor feature was continued 
till 1842. The first class, consisting of 3, graduated in 1841. 

By direction of the Convention in 1870, the University was 
removed to Macon, as a more eligible locality, where they 
have erected what is regarded as one of the finest college 
buildings south of the Potomac. The present building and 
the grounds (10 acres) cost $150,000. Two other large build 
ings are yet to be constructed. The University has an endow 
ment of $160,000. Its Library consists of over 6,000 volumes. 
The Ciceronian and Phi Delta Societies each have Libraries, 
amounting in all to about the same number of volumes. Rev. 
A. J. Battle, D.D., is President. 

Since the beginning of the College course in 1838 till the 
present, 390 have graduated. The number of students at 
present is about 135. 

It has 9 Professors. Besides the regular College course, it 
has a Law and Theological School at Macon. Connected with 
the University are Mercer High School at Penfield, occupying 



COLLEGES IN GEORGIA. 187 

the former buildings and property of the University at that 
place, and has 120 students; and Crawford High School, 
recently established atDalton, having 125 students both for 
the purpose of more readily preparing young men for the 
college. These are schools of high order. 

Rev. Jesse Mercer, in whose honor the University was 
named, was not only a leading man and a minister of his 
denomination, but a highly talented, greatly respected, and 
influential citizen. But few such men exist in any single age 
in any country. He was born in Halifax, N. C., in 1769, 
and brought to Wilkes County, Ga., by his father when 
a child. He commenced preaching before he was 20 years 
old, and continued his ministry for over 50 years. He died 
September 6th, 1841. 

EMORY COLLEGE. This College, located at Oxford, in New 
ton County, 40 miles east of Atlanta, was chartered December 
29th, 1836. From the first, it belonged to the Methodist 
Church, and is now the joint property of the North Georgia, 
South Georgia, and Florida Conferences. 

The first class of 3 graduated in 1841. It has up to this 
time graduated 590, a very considerable number of whom are 
prominent in Church and State. It has now 156 students. 
The President is Rev. Atticus G. Haygood, D.D. It has a 
valuable college apparatus, and several thousand volumes in 
its Library. 

The Literary Societies have large and valuable libraries. 

Pio NONO COLLEGE. This is a Catholic College, located in 
Macon, and established mainly through the efforts of Right 
Rev. William H. Gross, Bishop of Savannah, since his conse 
cration in 1873. He very soon determined to erect a college 
within his diocese, and was cordially aided by the denomina 
tion and by many who were not Catholics. The present col 
lege edifice was commenced May, 1874, and completed, ready 
for occupation, in October following a handsome brick costing 
$50,000. It has a regular college curriculum, classical and 
scientific courses, and a theological course, and employs 10 
professors and tutors. Rev. C. P. Gaboury is President. It bids 
fair to take high rank among the institutions of learning in 
Georgia. Last term (ending June, 1876) it had 86 students. 

THE ATLANTA UNIVERSITY. This is a school located in 
Atlanta for the higher education of Negroes in Georgia and 



188 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

adjoining States. It was established by the Freedmen s 
Bureau and various -Northern Aid Societies, the most promi 
nent being the American Missionary Association. 

The Charter was obtained in October, 1867, and about 50 
acres of land purchased on the western border of the city. 
The building was commenced June, 1869, and in August, 
1870, two large buildings were completed. The whole prop 
erty (including 60 acres of land) is worth about $100,000. 
Another building is contemplated to supply chapel, library, 
laboratory, etc. 

The first building (begun in June, 1869) was occupied as a 
school in October following. The first year 1869-70 there 
were 89 pupils ; and the present year 1875-6 240, 21 of 
whom are in the College course, 29 in the Preparatory course, 
113 in the Normal course, 68 in the Higher Normal course, 
and a few in Scientific courses ; and 6 graduated from the 
College course with the degree of B.A., and one with the 
degree of B.S. 

The Institution has a Library of 3,000 volumes, and a Library 
endowment of $5,000, the interest of which is used yearly to 
add to the Library. Besides this, it has no other endowment. 

Its support is derived entirely from tuition fees, from contri 
butions by the American Missionary Association, from the 
Peabody School Fund, and from $8,000 per annum donated to 
it by the Legislature of the State of Georgia. It aids from 40 
to 50 pupils either partly or wholly according to circumstances. 

It has a President, 3 Professors, and 11 Instructors in 
various branches. Rev. Edmund A. Ware is President. 

WESLEYAX FEMALE COLLEGE. Georgia claims the honor 
(and it is no doubt due) of establishing the first Female 
College in the world, for the higher education of women and 
conferring degrees upon its graduates ; and this honor is 
specially due to the Methodists of Georgia. It is a denomi 
national Institution, conceived and founded mainly by the 
efforts of leading ministers of that Church for the purpose 
named. It was not, at first, the property of the Church, 
though it was chiefly indebted to prominent Methodists for its 
inception and establishment. 

The College is beautifully located and well supplied with all 
necessary buildings and apparatus, at Macon, and many of the 
prime movers were citizens of that place. It was chartered 
December 10th, 1836. 



COLLEGES IN GEORGIA. 189 

The charter authorized the President, by and with the con 
sent of the Trustees, to confer all such honors, degrees, and 
licenses as are usually conferred in colleges and universities. 

The College was built by general subscription Methodist 
ministers acting as agents for the collection of funds, by 
appointment of the Bishops at the Conferences, and thus had 
a denominational cast from the first. 

In 1845, James A. Everett, of Houston County, paid off a 
mortgage of $10,000 against the College, and presented it to the 
Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
From this time, it became the sole property of the Georgia 
Conference, and is now the joint property of the North and 
South Georgia Conferences. 

The first class of 11 graduated in 1840, and a number have 
graduated every year since that time. The degree of A.B. 
has been conferred on 678, and of A.M. on 402 of its gradu 
ates, besides some honorary degrees. This year 1876 
there are 40 students in the Senior Class, 54 in the 
Junior, 55 in the Sophomore, and 55 in the Preparatory Classes. 
It has a President Rev. W. C. Bass and 7 Professors, besides 
Teachers and Assistants, and is a justly popular institution. 

SOUTHERN MASONIC FEMALE COLLEGE. This institution is 
located in the town of Covington, Newton County, on the 
Georgia Railroad. It was first erected by the people of the 
place for a female school of high order, in 1851, and called 
the Southern Female College. In 1852, it was transferred to 
the Grand Lodge of the Masonic Fraternity in Georgia, a 
new charter obtained, and its name changed. The Grand 
Lodge of the State appoints the Board of Trustees, of which 
the Grand Master is President. It is the sole property of the 
Order, and was procured for the purpose of educating the 
female orphans of _ Masons. It has a collegiate curriculum, 
and confers a full Baccalaureate degree upon its graduates. 
It has an average attendance of 90, and has graduated over 
350 up to this time. It is largely patronized outside of the 
beneficiaries of the fraternity. Rev. J. N. Bradshaw has been 
its President for a number of years. 



190 



HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 



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BENEVOLENT EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 191 



BENEVOLENT AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

THE GEORGIA ACADEMY FOR THE BLIND. This Institution 
was incorporated by Act of the Legislature of January 19th, 
1852. It originated in a movement made by the citizens of 
Macon at a meeting for this purpose on April loth, 1851. 
In January following, it was chartered, and 7 eminent men 
named as Trustees. The Act required them to " select the in 
digent blind of the State between the ages of 12 and 
20 years, and maintain and educate them gratuitously," and 
appropriated $5,000 per annum for the years 1852 and 1853 to 
aid in supporting the Institution. The school was opened in 
July, 1851. Mr. W. S. Fortescue was the first Principal, and 
Miss Hannah Guillan the female teacher. 

On February 18th, 1854, the Legislature appropriated $10,000 
to erect a suitable building. Further appropriations were 
afterward made and the building completed in 1860. Its total 
cost is about $65,000. 

This year (1876) there are 56 pupils in the Academy. Since 
its opening, 145 have been admitted; of these, 75 have been 
discharged as educated in one or more of the departments 
many of them with trades by which they can earn their sup 
port. 

Pupils are now admitted between the ages of 8 and 20; 
but males over 20 are taken into the workshop to learn 
trades. 

The appropriation for 1876 for supporting the Institution 
was $13,000 about an average of the yearly appropriations. 

The value of the buildings, grounds, and property is 
$75,000. There are about 1000 volumes in the Library, includ 
ing those in embossed print. 

The present Principal of the Academy, Rev. W. D. Wil 
liams, was elected to his position in August, 1858. 

Miss Hannah Guillan, the first instructress, still occupies the 
same post. Hon. James Mercer Gre^n, the President of the 
Board of Trustees from the beginning, deserves honor for his 
faithful discharge of duty. He is one of Georgia s best citi 
zens. Preparations are now being made for receiving some 



192 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

blind Negro children into the workshop. As yet there is no 
general provision made for educating the colored blind. 

THE GEORGIA INSTITUTE FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE 
DEAF AND DUMB. At the session of the Legislature in 1833, 
John J. Flournoy presented a memorial praying the establish 
ment of an Institution for the education of deaf mutes. It 
was referred to the Governor with a request to obtain full in 
formation and report to the next meeting of the General 
Assembly. At the next session in November, 1834, His Excel 
lency (Hon. Wilson Lumpkin) laid all the information he had 
obtained, before the Legislature, expressing himself particularly 
indebted to Governor Foot, of Connecticut, and Lewis Weld, 
the Principal of the Deaf and Dumb Academy at Hartford. In 
consequence of this correspondence, Mr. Weld came to Georgia 
with a class of deaf mutes, and gave an exhibition before the 
Legislature. That body appropriated $3,000 for the education 
of the " indigent deaf and dumb of the State between the 
ages of 12 and 20 years," at the Asylum at Hartford. 

Rev. Elijah Sinclair was appointed in March, 1835, by 
Governor Lumpkin, State Commissioner to look up the indigent 
deaf and dumb children of the State, convey them to Hart 
ford, and have them supported and educated there at the ex 
pense of the State. He was faithful and zealous, being reap- 
pointed to the same work by 2 of the successors of Gov 
ernor Lumpkin, and was complimented by the Legislature for 
his efficiency and integrity. He travelled extensively over the 
State searching for deaf mutes, but succeeded in sending only 
6 to Hartford. In 1836, he found 16 in the State who 
came within the provisions of the law ; but only 3 could be 
induced to go. In 1842 and 1843, Cedar Valley Academy, in 
Paulding County, made successful experiments in teaching 
deaf mutes. In December, 1845, the Legislature required all 
the State s beneficiaries to be withdrawn from Hartford and 
educated in Georgia. 

Rev. Jesse H. Campbell, who was then State Commissioner, 
made an arrangement with the Hearn Manual-Labor School at 
Cave Spring, Floyd County, to make the education of the 
deaf mutes a Department of their school. Mr. O. P. Fannin, 



LUNATIC ASYLUM. 193 

then associate teacher in that school, was sent to Hartford, 
where he learned the method of teaching deaf mutes, and 
brought back the Georgia pupils, entering them in the deaf 
mute Department of the Hearn School. He opened in a log- 
cabin May 15th, 1846, with 4 pupils. 

In 1847, the Legislature provided the means for erecting a 
suitable building. Cave Spring was selected, and the building 
completed in June, 1849, and occupied July 1st following. In 
the Spring of 1862, the Trustees suspended the operations of 
the Institution, and sent the pupils to their homes till after the 
war. It was reopened in February, 1867. 

The average number of pupils is about 50. The whole 
number received up to this time is 253. 

The appropriation for 1876 is $16,500 about the annual 
average. 

The Board of Trustees, in their report to the Governor for 
1875, recommended that the Legislature make provision for 
receiving Negro children into the Institution, which that body 
at its last session adopted and carried into effect. 

A suitable building located at Cave Spring, with 10 acres 
of land attached, was purchased for this purpose, and will soon 
be ready. Pupils are to be admitted to it, and provided for 
under the same rules as have heretofore existed, only they will 
be separate from the white pupils. 

The value of the property at present is about $25,000. 
There are about 1000 volumes in the Library. Prof. W. O. 
Connor is the Principal. 

THE LUNATIC ASYLUM OF THE STATE OF GEORGIA. The 
State of Georgia commenced this work in 1837. It was open 
for the reception of patients in October, 1842. 

It had on December 1st, 1875, 587 patients. Of these there 
were of whites, 260 males and 237 females; and blacks 45 of 
each, or 497 whites and 90 blacks. The Asylum has 3,000 acres 
of land which is used for raising stock, vegetables, and other 
produce, to partly supply the Institution. In 1874, there were 
over $13,000 worth of products raised, consisting mostly of 
vegetables ; and 5,635 garments were made in the Matron s 
Department. 



194 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The Institution is under the general supervision of a Board 
of Trustees, appointed by the Governor. Its officers are a 
Superintendent and Resident Physician, 2 Assistant Phy 
sicians, 1 Steward and 1 Assistant, Treasurer, Secretary, 
Apothecary, Chaplain, and Matron. The salaries of these 
officers amount to $12,800 per annum. The cost of its main 
tenance is in the neighborhood of $100,000 a year. The cost 
of the Institution and grounds attached, and repairs and im 
provements from the beginning, amounts to over $500,000. 
Dr. Thomas F. Green is the Superintendent and Resident 
Physician, who has occupied this position for 30 years. It is 
located at Milledgeville. 

THE GEORGIA BAPTIST ORPHANS HOME. This is a Home 
for Orphans of the State of Georgia, located 2^ miles north of 
Atlanta. It was established by the Georgia Baptist Conven 
tion, in April, 1871. Hon. John H. James and Ex-Governor 
Joseph E. Brown, of Atlanta, Ga., were the prime movers in 
this benevolent enterprise, each contributing $1,000. It has no 
endowments, and is supported by voluntary contributions. It 
has 10 acres of land and a good building with 10 rooms, 
which cost $4,100. It has on hand over $20,000 of assets, con 
sisting of cash $2,000, and obligations to contribute certain 
amounts, nearly $20,000. The average number of orphans in 
the Institution is 25, receiving and discharging about 5 a year. 
The children are educated and taught to work, and good 
homes are sought out for them when they are 14 to 15 years of 
age, where they will be cared for and further educated. 

ORPHANS HOME OF THE NORTH GEORGIA CONFERENCE. 
This Home for Orphans was established by the North Georgia 
Conference, M. E. Church, South, in ISO 7. The venerable Dr. 
Jesse Boring, a member of the Conference, originated the 
plan, and it was established mainly by his efforts. It is located 
near Decatur, De Kalb County, 6 miles from. Atlanta ; has 22 
acres of land and improvements worth about $0,000, and has 
nearly that amount of assets besides the property. It has an 
average of 30 orphans in the Home, who are under the super 
intendence of Rev. J. S. Lupo. They are educated and are 
also taught to work. They keep up a handsome farm by their 
labor. Only 3 of the t boys are large enough to plough, but 



HOMES MASONIC FRATERNITY. 195 

this year they made 10 bales of cotton and 300 bushels of 
oats, besides other products, almost a full support for the 
Home. It has a Board of 12 Trustees 6 Ministers and 6 Lay 
men all chosen by the Conference. The Governor-elect is 
one of the Board. V. R. Tommey, of Decatur, is Treasurer. 

ORPHANS HOME, SOUTH GEORGIA CONFERENCE. This is 
located in Bibb County, near Macon. It was first founded by 
Mr. Maxwell, of Macon, as a private benevolent enterprise of 
his own, in 1857, and so continued until 1873, when it passed 
into the hands of the South Georgia Conference, M. E. Church, 
South. 

From the beginning till now, 67 orphans have been received 
29 of them since it became the property of the Conference 
the present number being 1 7. 

The Home has 100 acres of land, and the property is worth 
$8,000, and out of debt. The children are taught in the ele 
mentary branches, and are brought up in the practice of farm 
and household work, and are kept till good homes can be 
secured for them. Rev. J. B. Wardlaw is the Superintendent. 

THE MASONIC FRATERNITY OF GEORGIA. This ancient 
Order was brought into Georgia with the first colonists. Gen 
eral Oglethorpe opened the first Lodge under a live-oak tree, 
at Sunbury. That tree died but a few years ago, and from it 
have been made Masonic tools, implements, and other articles, 
which are preserved as relics. A chair, made of its wood is 
kept in Solomon s Lodge, No. 1, at Savannah. 

The Provincial Grand Lodge of the State was established 
as early as 1735, if not before, by authority from the Grand 
Master of England, and so continued till February 6th, 1796, 
when the Grand Lodge of the State was incorporated by Act 
of the Legislature, and thus became an independent body. 

The first Grand Master was Roger Lacey, by appointment 
of the Grand Master of England, whose service terminated in 
1735. He was succeeded by Grey Eliot, who served from 
1735 to 1786, and Samuel Elbert till 1787. From this time, 
the Grand Masters of the State were elected by the Grand 
Lodge. Rev. David E. Butler, of Madison, is the present 
Grand Master, and Dr. J. Emniett Blackshear, of Macon, 
Grand Secretary. 



196 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

In 1820, there were 20 subordinate Lodges in the State, now 
there are over 300. In 1875, there were 15,168 Masons on the 
rolls of the Lodges that reported to the Grand Lodge, besides 
non-affiliated Masons and members of a few Lodges that did 
not report. The Order own the Southern Masonic Female 
College at Covington, Newton County. 

INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. This order was 
introduced into Georgia by the establishment of Oglethorpe 
Lodge No. 1, at Savannah, in 1842, the charter being granted 
by John A. Kennedy, Grand Sire of the Grand Lodge of the 
United States, to Alvin N. Miller, John Dorsett, Gilbert But 
ler, and others. 

The Grand Lodge of the State was organized November 
13th, 1844 Alvin N. Miller the first Grand Master. 

There are now 90 subordinate Lodges in the State, with 
nearly 3,000 members in good standing. Over 30 Lodges have 
been established in the last 5 years, and the Order is increasing 
rapidly. C. A. Robbie, of Augusta, is the present Grand 
Master ; W, S. Gramling, of Atlanta, Deputy Grand Master ; 
and John G. Deitz, of Macon, Grand Secretary. 

There is also a Grand Encampment of the Order, and 17 
subordinate Encampments in the State. 

INDEPENDENT ORDER OF GOOD TEMPLARS. This Order was 
first introduced into this State, at Atlanta, on October 28th, 
1867, by Mr. J. G. Thrower. The Grand Lodge of the State 
was organized November 22d, 1869. There are 355 working 
Lodges in the State, having a membership of over 20,000. The 
average additions to the membership amount to more than 
2,000 per annum. 

J. G. Thrower, of Atlanta, is the Grand Worthy Chief 
Templar, and W. U. C. Shepherd, of Marietta, Grand Worthy 
Secretary. 

The Grand Lodge of Georgia, 4 years ago, established the 
Independent Order of True Reformers, especially for the 
colored people, which has a large membership in this and the 
adjoining Southern States. The Georgia Grand Lodge of 
Good Templars at its last session (October, 1876) authorized 
the establishment of a separate Lodge of Good Templars 
exclusively for Negroes. This will be carried out without 



BAPTISTS IN GEORGIA. 197 

delay, and the True Reformers will, no doubt, be merged with 
the Good Templars. The Good Templars of Georgia were the 
first in the South to move in this matter. 



RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS IN GEORGIA. 

THE BAPTIST CHURCH. This denomination is more numerous 
than any other in Georgia. There are 114 Associations, over 
2,300 Churches, and 193,662 members nearly 1 to every 6 
persons in the State. About 81,000 of the members are 
Negroes. 

Of the Associations, 34 are organized into what is known as 
the " Baptist Convention of the State of Georgia ;" and all 
have the privilege of uniting with it at any time. 

The first Baptist in Georgia of which there is any history 
was Nicholas Begewood, in 1757. He was employed as an 
agent of Whitefield s Orphan House, near Savannah. Enter 
taining Baptist sentiments, he went to Charleston to unite with 
the Church and receive baptism. In 1759, he became a minis 
ter, and in 1763 baptized several persons about the Orphan 
House, to whom he administered the first Baptist Communion 
in the Province. 

The first Baptist Church organized in Georgia was in 1772, 
at Kiokee Meeting-House the spot on which Appling in 
Columbia County now stands under the ministry of Rev. 
Daniel Marshall, who was then the only ordained Baptist 
minister in Georgia. 

The second was in 1773, at a place then called New Savannah, 
afterward Botsford s Old Church, 25 miles below Augusta, 
under the ministry of Rev. Edmund Botsford. 

The Baptist Convention of the State was organized in 1822 
at Powelton, Hancock County. Its objects, among others, 
are : 

To aid in giving effect to useful plans of the several Associa 
tions ; 

To raise funds for the education of pious young men for the 
Christian Ministry; and 

To promote pious useful education in the Baptist denomi 
nation. 

Rev. Jesse Mercer was Moderator of the first meeting of 



198 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

the Convention, and was successively chosen to that position 
every year, up to the last year of his life his period of service 
being from 1822 to 1840 inclusive. 

Rev. D. E. Butler, of Madison, is the present Moderator, 
and Rev. G. R. McCall, of Hawkinsville, is Secretary. The 
Convention has charge of all the educational and charitable 
institutions belonging to the denomination in the State. It 
has a permanent fund of its own, of nearly $34,000, the interest 
only of which is used annually in its appropriate work. This 
Convention is a highly respected and influential body. The 
educational institutions which are the property of the 
denomination in Georgia, and under the control of the Baptist 
State Convention, are : Mercer University, Macon ; Mercer 
High School, Penfield ; Crawford High School, Dalton ; 
Hearn School, Cave Springs. 

This denomination has 702 Sunday-schools, 4,138 officers 
and teachers, and 31,389 scholars in the State, of which 105 
schools and 6,700 scholars are composed of Negroes. 

THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHUKCH, SOUTH. John Wesley, 
the founder of Methodism, came to Georgia, and commenced 
preaching in Savannah, early in 1736, followed by George 
Whitefield in 1738. This may be properly regarded as the 
introduction of Methodism into America, though the Church 
by that name was not formally established in this country till 
many years afterward. Mr. Wesley, in his writings, refers 
to this date as the " second rise of Methodism." 

The Methodist Episcopal Church in America was formally 
organized in Baltimore in 1784, in consequence of the separa 
tion of the colonies from Great Britain. 

Methodist preachers entered Georgia in 1785 at Augusta, 
from North Carolina and- Virginia ; and the territory of 
Georgia was soon after included in the South Carolina Con 
ference. Conspicuous among these pioneers are the names of 
Thomas Humphries and John Majors volunteers from a 
conference in Virginia who preached on a circuit extending 
from Savannah to Wilkes County. They reported 450 mem 
bers in Georgia in 1786. 

Among the active Methodist ministers in Georgia of the 
early period were Hope Hull, John Gavin, Stith Mead, and 
Levi Garretson ; and as early as 1806, Lovick Pierce, father 



METHODIST CHUKCH SOUTH. 199 

of Bishop George F. Pierce, was a preacher in active work, 
and is still living now in his 92d year, possessing all his 
faculties, and preaches with remarkable vigor. 

Up to 1830, Georgia was included in the South Carolina 
Conference, but that year the Georgia Conference was 
formed. For the year 1831, the membership of the Georgia 
Conference was 21,385 whites and 6,167 blacks ; and 95 
itinerant preachers. 

In 1866, the Georgia Conference was divided into the North 
Georgia and the South Georgia Conferences. At the time of 
the division, there were in Georgia 215 itinerant ministers, 
and 51,219 white members. 

The following shows the condition of the two Conferences 
at the end of the year 1875 : 

North Georgia Conference. Number of church-buildings, 
643 ; capable of seating 171,000 persons ; itinerant preachers, 
168 ; local preachers, 425; number of members, 53,754; Sun 
day-school scholars, 27,171 ; number of Sunday-schools, 527; 
value of church property, $700,000. 

South Georgia Conference. Number of church-buildings, 
406; capable of seating 99,157 persons ; itinerant preachers, 
123 ; local preachers, 221 ; number of members, 29,304 ; 
Sunday-school scholars, 12,332 ; value of church property, 
$412,640. 

In 1871, the Negro membership of the Methodist Church 
in the South was set up as an independent organization, and 
designated " The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church of 
America," The first general conference of this body was held 
at Jackson, Tenn., in that year, at which Bishops Paine 
and McTyeiere, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
ordained two colored Bishops. The strength of this organi 
zation in Georgia, in 1875, was 13,752 members. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, have several institu 
tions of learning in Georgia. Emory College at Oxford, and 
Wesleyan Female College at Macon, are both colleges of a high 
order. Besides these, there is La Grange Female College at 
La Grange ; Dalton Female College, Dalton ; Andrew Female 
College, Cuthbert ; and Collingsworth Institute, near Talbot- 
ton all the property of the two Conferences in Georgia, and 
are of long standing and established reputation, having pro- 



200 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

fessors of ability, and are well patronized. The educational 
facilities of this denomination in Georgia are ample. 

Besides these, there are two Houses for Orphans belonging 
to the Church one located near Atlanta, the other near 
Macon both of which are well sustained. 

THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHUECH, NORTH. In January, 

1866, Bishop Clark, of Cincinnati, with 10 ministers, all white, 
organized this Chureh in Georgia at Atlanta. Nearly all the 
members then enrolled were white. 

The first regular Conference was held in Atlanta, m October, 

1867, Bishop Clark presiding. 

There were present 28 white and 9 colored preachers. The 
work of the Church has been largely among the Negroes. 

In 1875, there were in Georgia 193 church-buildings, worth 
$118,065. The membership numbers about 15,000, about 
12,000 being colored. There are 395 preachers, 101 of whom 
are itinerants, the others local ; 194 Sunday-schools, 716 
officers and teachers, and 8,738 scholars. There are now two 
Conferences of this denomination in Georgia, one for the 
Whites and the other for the Negroes. 

In Atlanta, there is an incipient University (called Clark 
University) with $25,000 worth of property, besides 450 acres 
of land near the city. 

The Church has academies for the education of Negro chil 
dren at La Grange and Waynesboro, and church-schools at 
Rome, Newnan, and Grantville. 

A white school of high grade, called the Ellijay Seminary, 
and belonging to the Church, has been established at Ellijay, 
Gilmer County. It is a handsome, well-constructed brick edi 
fice, costing $8,000. The school is well patronized. 

OTHER METHODIST CHURCHES. Besides the Southern and 
Northern branches of the Methodist Church iu Georgia, there 
are the Protestant Methodist Church membership, 2,500; the 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church of America member 
ship, 13,752; and the African Methodist Episcopal Church 
membership, 40,153. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. This element in Georgia was 
largely derived from Scotch-Irish immigrants from North 
Carolina and other States, and their descendants. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 201 

Presbyterianism was introduced into Georgia at quite an 
early date. A few churches are known to have existed ; one 
in " St. Paul s Parish" (Augusta), one at " Brier Creek," and 
one at " Queensborough," the last two supposed to have been 
in Burke County. In 1735, a colony of Scotch Presbyterians 
located at New Inverness, now Darien, in Mclntosh County, 
at the mouth of the Altamaha River. Rev. John McLeod was 
their pastor till 1741. The Independent Presbyterian Church 
of Savannah was organized about the year 1765 or before. 

The early churches were necessarily weak and remained so 
for some time, being dependent upon visiting ministers from 
Carolina and the older colonies or States. It was not till 1796 
that the Church was organized and established in Georgia. 

At that time, the Presbytery of Hopewell was set off from 
that of South Carolina. It consisted of only 5 ministers and 
about 16 churches, located principally in the eastern-middle 
portion of the State, now embraced in the Counties of Wilkes, 
Oglethorpe, Greene, Hancock, Burke, and others. The first 
Presbytery was held in Wilkes County, at Liberty Church, 
March 16th, 1797. The names of the ministers constituting it 
were John Newton, John Springer, Robert M. Cunningham, 
Moses Waddell, and William Montgomery. 

From this small beginning, it has steadily grown till it is a 
Synod, embracing 5 Presbyteries and extending all over the 
State. There are, at present, 74 ministers, 8 licentiates, 8 
candidates, 143 churches, 135 church-edifices, 51,610 sittings, 
8,103 members, 76 Sabbath-schools, 4,485 Sabbath-school 
scholars, and the value of church property $578,450. Contri 
butions for all purposes during the past year amounted to 
$87,277, averaging $10.75 for each member. 

Previous to the war, the denomination had a flourishing 
college at Midway, Baldwin County, known as Oglethorpe 
University, but it had the misfortune to have its funds swept 
away by the war. It grew out of a manual-labor school, 
which was suggested by Rev. C. W. Howard, the pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church at Milledgeville, and whose exertions 
secured its establishment about 1836, under the auspices and 
patronage of Hopewell Presbytery. Afterward, through 
Mr. Howard s exertions, it was changed to a college, under 
the name of Oglethorpe University. Mr. Howard proposed 



202 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

the name, and he raised in Georgia in one year, subscriptions 
to endow it to the amount of $120,000. Since the war, it was 
removed to Atlanta, and an effort made to resuscitate and 
re-endow it, but it was unsuccessful ; and the Synod has 
abandoned the effort for the present. The apparatus and 
other property have been returned to Midway, and, with the 
former buildings of the college, are used and occupied by 
Talmage High School, which is well patronized. The prop 
erty is worth $25,000. 

There are several other Presbyterian organizations in the 
State. The Independent Presbyterian Church of Savannah is 
a large, wealthy, and influential body. 

The Associated Reformed Presbyterians consist of 6 churches, 
6 church-edifices valued at $8,000, having 2,000 sittings, 530 
members, 6 Sunday-schools and 300 scholars, and 5 ministers. 

The colored people have a Presbytery of their own, styled 
Knox Presbytery, consisting of 6 churches and church- 
edifices, 6 ministers, and 1,000 members. 

The Presbyterian element in Georgia may be set down as 
157 church organizations, 146 church-edifices, 56,000 sittings, 
86 ministers, 9,403 members, 88 Sabbath-schools and 5,085 
scholars, with church property amounting to $653,450. 

THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN GEORGIA. This 
Church commenced its work in Georgia in 1732, through Rev. 
Henry Herbert, who came over with the first emigrants. He 
was followed by Rev. Samuel Quincy in 1733, John Wesley 
in 1736, and George Whitefield in 1738. The only parish of 
which John Wesley and George Whitefield were ever rectors 
was Christ Church, Savannah. 

Both John Wesley and George Whitefield established 
Sunday-schools hi Georgia, nearly 50 years before Robert 
Raikes originated the scheme of Sunday instruction in Glouces 
ter in England, and 80 years before a Sunday-school on his 
plan was established in New York. 

In 1758, the Colonial Assembly divided the Colony into 
parishes. 

The first Episcopal Bishop who ever visited Georgia was 
Bishop Dehon, of South Carolina, in 1815, to consecrate the 
new church-building for Christ Church, Savannah, where he 



EPISCOPAL CHRISTIAN CATHOLIC CHURCHES. 203 

confirmed a class of 60, the first confirmation ever held in 
Georgia. 

The first Convention of the Diocese of Georgia was held in 
Augusta, 1823. 

Rev. Stephen Elliott was elected the first Bishop of the 
Diocese in 1840, and consecrated in 1841. He held the posi 
tion until his death, nearly 25 years, and was succeeded by 
Rev. John W. Beckwith in 1867, who is the present Bishop. 

The Journal of the Convention of the Diocese in 1876 
shows 29 churches and stations, having 11,000 sittings; 
church property amounting to $350,600 ; 4,500 communicants, 
and 39 clergymen. There are 25 Sunday-schools, having 366 
teachers and 2,613 scholars. Total contributions for all pur 
poses for the year ending May, 1876, $695,542.22, or about 
$15 for each member. 

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. This denomination being strictly 
Congregational in its government, and having no organization 
similar to a Synod, Conference, or State Convention, its statis 
tics from year to year in Georgia have never been compiled ; 
and we have been unable to obtain information showing its 
introduction into the State or its progress since that time. 
The figures, showing its present status, are estimates by one 
who is most familiar with it, and are approximately correct 
and reliable as such. 

There are say 50 churches, 5,000 members, and 40 ministers. 
The churches have about 20,000 sittings, and the value of the 
church property is about $150,000. Several of Georgia s emi 
nent divines are connected with this Church. 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN GEORGIA. In the Charter grant 
ed by George II. to the Trustees of the Colony of Georgia, 
the King said : " We do, by these presents, for us, our heirs, 
and successors, grant, establish, and ordain, that forever, here 
after, there shall be a liberty of conscience allowed in the 
worship of God to all persons inhabiting, or which shall in 
habit or be resident within our said province, and that all 
such persons, except papists, shall have a free exercise of 
religion ; so they be contented with the quiet and peaceable 
enjoyment of the same, not giving offense or scandal to the 
Government." 



204 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The exception of " papists" was swept away in the Consti 
tution of 1777, after the Declaration of Independence, as not 
in accordance with the sentiments of a free people ; indeed, 
Catholics were never molested in Georgia on account of their 
religious faith, either during the colonial history or since. 

The first Catholic Church established in Georgia was at 
Locust Grove, in Taliaferro County, 7 miles from Crawford- 
ville, by a colony of Catholics from Maryland in 1794. Soon 
after, a number of Catholics, refugees from the horrible mas 
sacres of San Domingo, came to America. Numbers of them 
settled in Savannah and Augusta, where they were most 
kindly received. A priest of these refugees went to Locust 
Grove, and was the first Catholic clergyman that ever officiated 
in Georgia. 

At that time, Georgia and both the Carolinas were subject 
to the See of Baltimore Bishop Carroll and so continued 
till July llth, 1820, when the Carolinas and Georgia were 
raised to a distinct Diocese by the appointment of Dr. John 
England, who was the first Bishop of Charleston, with the 
three States as his field. 

At that time there was only one church in Georgia (in 
Augusta) which was occupied, the congregations at Locust 
Grove and Savannah being without pastors. 

Bishop England was a man of great learning, a wonderful 
preacher, very zealous and laborious, and very liberal toward 
other denominations. He often preached in their churches, 
and in court-houses or school-houses where he travelled, leav 
ing a most favorable impression upon all persons, whether 
Catholic or Protestant. He died in April, 1842, and was suc 
ceeded by Rev. Ignatius Reynolds till November 10th, 1850, 
when the State of Georgia was erected into a distinct Diocese, 
and Rev. Dr. Gartland appointed the first Bishop of Savannah. 
After his death, he was succeeded by Bishops Barry, Yerot, 
and Persico ; and on April 27th, 1873, the present Bishop, Rt. 
Rev. Wm. H. Gross, was appointed. 

Since his episcopate, the Church in Georgia has founded and 
built Pio Nono College at Macon, a splendid Cathedral at 
Savannah, and an Orphan Asylum at Washington. The order 
of Jesuits has also been introduced at Augusta. 

Convents of the Sisters of Mercy are at Savannah, Augusta, 



LUTHERANS AND OTHERS ISRAELITES. 205 

Macon, Columbus, Atlanta, and Dalton. This order was in 
troduced into Georgia at Savannah in 1845. 

In 1836, there were about 5,000 Catholics in Georgia. Now 
there are 25,000 to 30,000. There are 25 churches, 35 chapels, 
24 priests, 3 male and 7 female religious institutions, 1 col 
lege of high order, 1 Orphan Asylum, church property val 
ued at from $400,000 to $500,000, and convent property about 
$150,000 to $200,000. 

THE LUTHERANS. This Church in Georgia lacks two years 
of being as old as the State. The Salzbergers landed in 
Savannah March 12th, 1734, and settled in Eben-Ezer, in 
Emngham County, where lands were allotted to them by Gen 
eral Oglethorpe. Here they built Ebenezer Church, the first 
Lutheran Church in Georgia. There are now 4 Lutheran 
churches in Emngham County. The Lutheran Church in 
Savannah was established in 1759 or before. This denomina 
tion had in Georgia, in 1870, according to the United States 
Census, 11 church organizations, 10 church-edifices, 3,000 sit 
tings, and church property valued at $57,100. 

OTHER CHURCHES. We have been unable to obtain par 
ticulars of the Congregational and Universalist Churches in 
Georgia other than what are contained in the United States 
Census of 1870, and can only present the statistics therein 
given as follows viz. : 

Congregationalists 10 churches, 2,800 sittings, and church 
property valued at $16,550. 

Universalists 5 church organizations, 3 church-edifices, 
900 sittings, and church property valued at $900. 

ISRAELITES. The number of Israelites in Georgia is about 
2,620 souls, distributed as follows : Atlanta, about 550 ; Savan 
nah, about 750 ; Macon, 300 ; Columbus, 200 ; Rome, 90 ; 
Augusta, 250; Americus, 80; Albany, 100. In other towns, 
300. 

The larger cities have synagogues some of them very 
elegant and all newly erected. Those at Savannah, Macon, 
and Atlanta are collectively worth about $100,000. There are 
only 3 priests or Hebrew ministers in the State : Rev. H. 
Gersoni, in Atlanta ; Rev. M. Harris, of Savannah ; and Rev. 
S. Levinsohn, of Augusta. 



206 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

In other communities, the Israelites are united in congrega 
tions and hold services, inviting ministers from the cities named 
to perform such special religious rites as marriages, burials, 
circumcisions, etc. 

There are lodges of the Jewish orders of Bnai Berith, and 
Kesher-Shel-Barzel or Free Sons of Israel, in almost every city 
in the State. 

Every Jewish community keeps up benevolent societies for 
the assistance of the needy and the occasional poor who pass. 
In the larger cities, female benevolent societies are formed 
besides those maintained by the males. 

In Georgia, the Israelites have no educational institutions 
of their own except Sabbath-schools, which are devoted to 
religious instruction only. They patronize the public schools 
for secular education. 

THE GEORGIA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Hon. Mark A. Cooper, now residing in Bartow County, near 
Cartersville, first suggested the formation of this Society, 
and a general plan or method of proceeding so as to insure 
success. As the result of his suggestion, early in the summer 
of 1846 there appeared in the newspapers of the State, a call 
signed by 44 prominent men, for an " Agricultural Fair and 
Internal Improvement Jubilee" at Stone Mountain, in De Kalb 
County, 18 miles from Atlanta. Three of these, George W. 
Crawford, Charles J. McDonald, and Wilson Lumpkin, have 
been Governors of the State. In the call, they express the be 
lief that great good may result to the planting interest of 
Georgia, Carolina, Alabama, and Tennessee, from a personal 
interchange of the results of their experience, accompanied by 
an exhibition of the products of their farms, and suggest 
the propriety of those engaged in Agricultural pursuits, and 
such others as may feel an interest in the subject, meeting at 
some central point in the up-country for that purpose." They 
named " Stone Mountain as the place most suitable," and 
fixed the time near the 1st of August, because by that time 
" the several railroads in Georgia will be finished, at least from 
Oostenaula to the seaboard." 

The meeting assembled August 7th, 1846. Mark A. Cooper 



GEORGIA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 207 

was Chairman, and David W. Lewis, of Hancock, Secre 
tary. They formed a Society for " developing and illus 
trating" the resources of the country, and 51 gentlemen 
subscribed their names as members, paying the membership 
fee of $1 each. They then elected permanent officers as 
follows : 

Hon. Thomas Stocks, of Greene, President; David W. 
Lewis, of Hancock, Secretary ; and Win. M. D Autignac, of 
Richmond, Treasurer ; and resolved to hold a Fair annually 
" for the exhibition and sale of all such products of Agriculture 
and Horticulture as may be contributed by members and 
citizens, ... to include animal and vegetable products of 
Plantations, Farms, Gardens, Orchards, and Dairies ; Agricul 
tural Implements and Articles of Domestic Manufacture, use 
ful to the farmer or planter." 

Such was the beginning of the Society, which has become 
famous and useful in the State and the whole country. 

Fairs were held in 1847, 48, and 49, at Stone Mountain; 
1850 at Atlanta, and 1851 at Macon. 

When it was organized, it was called "The Southern Cen 
tral Agricultural Society," the aim being to include the peo 
ple of adjoining States, and it was chartered by that name 
February 17th, 1854. 

In 1860 (December 20th), its name was changed to that of the 
" Georgia State Agricultural Society," and a new charter ob 
tained, in which the sum of $2,500 per annum was appropri 
ated from the State Treasury, in aid of the Society. 

During the war, its operations were suspended, but in 1868 
it was reorganized, and a Fair held in Macon in 1869, and con 
tinuously every year since, alternately at Macon and Atlanta, 
except the present year 1876, it being postponed till 1877, on 
account of the Centennial Exhibition. 

The Society is a representative body, composed of prominent 
and intelligent men elected annually by local organizations. 
It also has a number of life-members, and justly has large 
influence in the State. Through its earnest recommendation, 
the office of State Geologist and the Department of Agriculture 
were established by the Legislature in 1874, and it had much 
to do in procuring the passage of a law for the inspection and 
analysis of commercial fertilizers. 



208 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The exhibitions at its Fairs are always superior and very 
largely attended, not only by the people of Georgia, but of 
the States, North and South. 

The essays and addresses delivered at its semi-annual Con 
ventions are not excelled in ability, learning, instruction, and 
practical usefulness by those of any similer organization in 
the United States, and are truly occasions of very great 
interest. 

The Spring Convention is held annually in February, in the 
southern portion, and the Summer Convention in August, in 
the northern portion of the State. 

The Presidents of the Society have been as follows : 

Hon. Thomas Stocks 1846 to 1854 

Hon. Mark A. Cooper 1854 to 1856 

Dr. L. B. Mercer 1856 to 1858 

Hon. D. W. Lewis 1858 to 1860 

and was President up to the time of its reorganization 

in 1868, after the war. 

Col. B. C. Yancy 1868 to 1871 

Gen. A. H. Colquitt (Governor-elect) 1871 to 1876 

Hon. T. F. Hardeman, President-elect term to commence 

in February next. 

The office of the Society is in the State House, Atlanta ; 
Mr. Malcolm Johnson, Secretary. It has a Library of about 
3,500 volumes. 

In this connection, it is not inappropriate to give a passing 
tribute to Hon. Thomas Stocks, the first President of the 
Society. He died October 6th last (1876), at his home in 
Greene County, near the spot where he was born, at the 
advanced age of nearly 91 years. He was born in a fort, 
February 1st, 1786, where his parents were living, as a 
protection against hostile Indians, and was the first white 
child born in Greene County. In the year 1820, he was 
elected to the Georgia State Senate, and held that position 
by successive elections for more than 20 years, and was 
for several terms the President of that body. He voluntarily 
retired, and never afterward in any way entered the arena 
of politics further than to cast his vote at elections. He was 
a consistent member of the Baptist Church for nearly 50 
years, and a prominent man in that denomination, active and 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 209 

useful in all the educational and benevolent enterprises of the 
Church. 

He succeeded Dr. Jesse Mercer as the President of the 
Board of Trustees of Mercer University, in 1840, from which 
he voluntarily ^retired in 1866. He was an active member of 
the Executive Committee of the Baptist Convention of the 
State of Georgia, from 1830 to 1847, when he was chosen 
Moderator of that body, to which position he was successively 
chosen for 10 years. In 1846, as before stated, he was 
chosen President of the State Agricultural Society, and held 
that office till 1854, when he voluntarily retired. 

When his friends and fellow-citizens gathered around his 
bier to pay the last tribute to his honored ashes, no incident 
occurred more touching than a procession of 40 or 50 of 
his former slaves, now laboring upon his plantation, who had 
come .to take a last look at the face of their old master, who 
had been their best earthly friend. - Unrestrainedly they gave 
evidence of the profound sorrow of their simple hearts, at the 
loss of their benefactor. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OF THE STATE OF 
GEORGIA. 

Nearly all the States of the Union give encouragement to 
agriculture in some way, generally by the appointment of a 
State Board of Agriculture, which superintends the holding of 
a State Fair, and the State paying for the publication of a cer 
tain number of copies of the transactions of the Board, and 
the essays or addresses produced on Agriculture or cognate 
subjects. 

Georgia has not been listless, but has been foremost, in 
some respects, in measures to improve the Agriculture of her 
people. 

The State Agricultural Society was formed in 1846, and, in 
1860, the Legislature appropriated $2,500 per annum to aid in 
holding its annual Fairs and for other purposes. This is an able, 
influential, and highly respected association, which has accom 
plished an untold amount of good. The assistance given it by 
the State has been repaid many-fold. 

This Society, at its session in Atlanta, in August, 1870, adopt- 



210 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

ed resolutions calling upon the Legislature to establish a State 
Department of Agriculture, which would be " commensurate 
with the interests to be subserved, . . . upon such a 
basis as will largely and liberally provide for all purposes of 
information, improvement, and guidance of the Agricultural in 
terests of the State ; . and include the devising of 
improved methods of estimating the probable acreage and 
crops of the country, and of making a virtual census annually, 
embracing all crop topics capable of reasonable and probable 
anticipation, as well as of actual results ;" and declared that 
the " great object of the Department should be to give intelli 
gent direction to the practical industry of the State ; to dis 
seminate information which will tend to increase the produc 
tion, and to the not less important matter of the judicious and 
profitable sale of products ; to place the producer on a level 
with the speculator and consumer in his knowledge of the ele 
ments of price ;" and to " adopt the most improved method of 
preserving, on a large scale, observations on the weather, 
seasons, temperature, and other phenomena, to increase the 
means of anticipating results ; and that, in connection with it, 
there should be established an experimental farm, a place for 
the exhibition of tools and implements, a museum, cabinet, and 
such other means and appliances as shall subserve the impor 
tant purposes of its foundation." 

At the meeting at Columbus in February, 1874, similar res 
olutions were adopted. These declare that " our thrift and 
well-being require that the farming and material interests 
should have a State Agricultural Department established." 

The Georgia State Grange, at its session in Macon, in the 
winter of 1873, passed similar resolutions. 

His Excellency J. M. Smith, the present Governor of Geor 
gia, in his annual message to the Legislature, January, 1874, 
strongly recommended "the establishment of a Department of 
Agriculture for the State." He said : 

" Men now distrust analyses and experiments which are 
given to the world on unofficial endorsement. Could the in 
formation, so much needed in the every-day operations of field 
and shop, be sent forth from such a department, ... it 
would carry with it a weight and sanction rendering it accept 
able to the public. Here could be gathered from every source 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 211 

the most advanced ideas and methods affecting the great inter 
ests committed to this Department." 

The result was the passage of a bill, approved February 
28th, ] 874, " to establish a Department of Agriculture for the 
State of Georgia." 

This Act required the Department to be under the "control 
and management of one officer, who shall be known as the 
Commissioner of Agriculture," to be appointed by the Gov 
ernor, with the advice and consent of the Senate, and appro 
priated $10,000 per annum to pay necessary employes and ex 
penses and carry on the work of the Department. 

The creating Act prescribed the following as the duties of 
the Commissioner : 

" SEC. IV. That the duties of said Commissioner shall be : 

" 1. He shall prepare, under his own direction, a hand-book describing 
the geological formation of the various counties of this State, with infor 
mation as to the general adaptation of the soil of said counties for the vari 
ous products of the temperate zone, and for the purpose of giving a more 
general and careful estimate of the capacity and character of the soil of 
the counties of this State ; to obtain a correct analysis of the same, he 
shall be furnished by the Executive of this State, from the State Treas 
ury, with a sum. of not more than one thousand ($1,000) dollars, with 
which to furnish a sufficient chemical apparatus to use in connection with 
said office, for the purpose of analyzing the soils and minerals of this 
State, as he may deem of importance. Information upon the above sub 
jects, and others of interest to those who till the soil of this State, shall be 
given in circular or pamphlet form, to the Ordinaries and to the Agricul 
tural Associations of the various counties in this State, for distribution 
at such times as the Commissioner may be prepared to do so. 

" 2. Said Commissioner shall provide for the proper and careful distribu 
tion of any seeds that the Government of the United States may desire 
to introduce into the State of Georgia, and shall make arrangements for 
the importation of seeds that he may deem of value to this State, and for 
the proper, careful, and judicious distribution of the same ; also, for the 
exchange of seeds with foreign countries or adjoining States, for seed 
from this State ; and their distribution in a proper manner shall be en 
tirely under his supervision and control. 

" 3. Said Commissioner shall have under his especial charge the study of 
the various insects that are injurious to the crops, plants, and fruits of 
this State, their habits and propagation ; and he shall, at various times, 
as he may deem proper, issue circulars for distribution as aforesaid in 
this State, as to the proper mode for their destruction, and any informa 
tion upon said subject that he may deem of interest to the planters, 
farmers, and horticulturists of this State. 



212 HAND-BOOK OP GEORGIA. 

" 4. Said Commissioner shall examine into any question that may be of 
interest to the horticulturists and fruit-growers of this State, and in all 
endeavors that he may deem proper toward encouraging these impor 
tant industries. 

" 5. Said Commissioner shall have under his especial charge the diseases 
of the grain, fruit, and other crops of this State, and he shall, at various 
times, report upon any remedy for said diseases, or any useful informa 
tion upon said subject, and he shall employ, in a manner that he may 
deem fit, a chemist to assist him in his researches, and a geologist to 
assist him in preparing a geological survey of the State, and other 
business that he may deem of importance to advance the purpose for 
which this Department is created. 

" 6. Said Commissioner shall have under his especial charge the analy 
sis of fertilizers. A fair sample of all fertilizers sold in this Stats shall 
be first submitted to said Commissioner, and the same shall be thor 
oughly tested by him, and if any brand of fertilizers so tested by said 
Commissioner is pronounced of no practical value, the sale of the same 
shall be prohibited in this State ; and any per son violating the provisions 
of this Act, or selling any fertilizer in this State without first submitting 
a fair sample of the same to said Commissioner, under rules to be 
prescribed by him, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be liable 
to be prosecuted and punished for the same, as is now provided in para 
graph 4,310 of the Code of Georgia as last revised. 

" 7. Said Commissioner shall report, as is hereinbefore set forth, upon 
any matter of interest in connection with the dairy that he may deem of 
interest to the people of this State. 

"8. It shall be the especial duty of said Commissioner to investigate 
and report, as is hereinbefore set forth, upon the culture of wool, the 
utility and profits of sheep-raising, and all the information upon this im 
portant sublet that he may deem of interest to the people of this State. 

"9. Said Commissioner shall investigate the subject of irrigation, and 
what portion of this State can be most benefited thereby, and all irifor- 
inatiou upon this subject that he may deem important to the people of 
this State. 

" 10. Said Commissioner shall give attention to the subject of fencing, 
and shall report at such times as he may deem proper upon said subject, 
as is hereinbefore set forth. 

" 11. Said Commissioner may report, in the manner as is hereinbefore 
set forth, upon any matter or subject that he may deem of interest to the 
agriculture of this State." 

The Department was established in September, 1874, the 
Governor appointing Dr. Thomas P. Janes, of Greene County, 
the Commissioner, a practical and successful farmer who never 
before held any office, and who at once entered upon the dis 
charge of his duties. 

Thus the State of Georgia was the first in the Union to 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 213 

establish a State Department of Agriculture as a branch of the 
State Government, and with a salaried State House officer at 
its head, having prescribed duties requiring continual services. 

Already (in two years) much good has been accomplished. 
Daring the crop seasons of 1875 and 1876, circulars, showing 
the condition of the crops and seasons in nearly every county 
in the State, have been published, which are much sought for, 
and are partly or wholly published by most of the papers in 
the State. 

A large amount of valuable information upon labor and 
various features of farm economy, stock-raising, the cultiva 
tion of the grasses, forage, and other crops, upon which the 
farmers of Georgia have not hitherto been generally well in 
formed, is gathered up by the Department and published, 
which has made a decided impression upon the farming in 
terests of the State. It has compiled and published a small 
" Manual of Sheep-Husbandry in Georgia," which has largely 
influenced numbers of persons in the State to embark in the 
business many of them quite extensively. It is preparing 
similar Manuals on Hog-raising and Cattle-raising in Georgia, 
which will be followed by Manuals on other subjects affecting 
Agricultural and Home Interests. 

The most important demonstrated results for good have been 
shown in the supervision which the Department has exercised 
over the inspection, analysis, and sale of commercial fertilizers 
in the State. Before it was established, there was a law requir 
ing the inspection and analysis of fertilizers, but there was no 
one officer designated to prescribe uniform rules and enforce 
the law, which was not only defective, but was thus inefficiently 
executed ; hence our farmers were much imposed upon by the 
sale of spurious or worthless compounds, of whose value they 
were wholly unable to form any correct estimate. 

The Commissioner, at the end of the first season after the 
Department was established, published the Analysis, Price, 
and actual Commercial Value, of every fertilizer sold in the 
State. This was in June, 1875. It made a decided impres 
sion. Every person was able to see these facts concerning 
every fertilizer sold in Georgia put in print, side by side, for 
comparison. 

The Commissioner also required 500 Ibs. of each brand 



214 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

sold, to be placed in the hands of experienced and careful 
farmers in different sections of the State, to be subjected to a 
careful soil test. 

In January, 1876, early in the fertilizer season, the Analyses 
and Prices with Commercial Values of the fertilizers then on 
sale were published, and to this was annexed the result of the 
experiments or practical soil tests made the season before ; and 
in June following, the Analyses, Prices, etc., of the whole sea 
son were published. 

From these publications, the farmers of Georgia have the 
means of ascertaining the agricultural value of any brand of 
fertilizer offered for sale ; and the enforcement of the Inspec 
tion Laws has been such that no poor article of fertilizer can 
go to sale in the State. No farmer can buy a worthless fer 
tilizer in Georgia, for it will not be admitted to sale. 

This supervision has, in one single season, saved to the 
farmers of Georgia in actual cash not less than $1,500,000, as 
demonstrated by the increased actual value of the fertilizers 
sold over those of the preceding year, and the decreased price 
at which they were sold ; also, the more intelligent and judi 
cious purchase of commercial fertilizers, and a more scientific 
and economical use of home manures all resulting from this 
supervision. This saving amounts to $1.27 per annum for 
every individual in Georgia ; while the entire expense to the 
State of the Department is only one cent and one sixth of a 
cent per annum to each individual. 

STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Governor William Schley, in his Annual Message to the Leg 
islature, November 8th, 1836, strongly urged the Legislature 
to provide for a Geological Survey of the State. After giving 
reasons why it should be done, he said : " I suggest the pro 
priety of employing a competent geologist to make a thorough 
survey of the State, with a view to the ascertainment of its 
mineral and agricultural resources, and the proper location of 
works of internal improvement." 

In compliance with this recommendation, the Legislature 
adopted a resolution authorizing the Governor to employ a 
" suitable and well-qualified person to undertake the work of a 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 215 

careful and scientific survey of all the Counties in Georgia," 
and appropriated $ 10,000 to carry it on. 

On January 6th, 1837, the Governor appointed Dr. John 
R. dotting vState Geologist. On December llth, 1840, the 
Legislature abolished the office, which discontinued the survey. 

This disappointment to the public to secure the expected 
benefits operated greatly against the success of future efforts 
to put a State Geologist into the field. 

The State Agricultural Society, which has been prominent 
in leading off in favor of important measures affecting our 
great interests, several times urged this matter upon the atten 
tion of the Legislature. In November, 1851, at the great Fair 
held that year in Macon, a committee, consisting of Dr. W. C. 
Daniell, Benjamin E. Stiles, and James M. Davison, was ap 
pointed to memorialize the Legislature for an appropriation 
for a Geological Survey of the State. It showed great research 
and acquaintance with the advanced sciences of the day, pre 
sented the advantages of such a survey, and was a strong doc 
ument, but was ineffectual. 

The Convention at its session at Griffin, in August, 1872, 
resolved, " as the sense of this Convention, that the Legisla 
ture should provide for a Geological Survey of the State ;" and 
the Convention at Augusta in 1873,resolved,"that it is the sense 
of this Convention, that the present General Assembly of the 
State of Georgia ought to j)ass the Bill now pending before it 
creating the office of State Geologist." The Bill did not pass 
at that session, but at the session of 1874 an Act was passed 
(approved February 27th) creating the office of "State Geologist 
of the State of Georgia," authorizing the Governor to " nomi 
nate a competent person to this office to be confirmed by the 
Senate." The Act requires the State Geologist " to make a 
careful and complete geological, mineralogica], and physical 
survey of the State ; to enter upon records to be kept for that 
purpose in his office, an accurate statement of the locality and 
extent of all water-powers, woods, roads, springs, and water 
courses, and the climate and the general physical character of 
the country ; to collect, analyze, and classify specimens of 
minerals, plants, and soils, and enter the same of record ; to 
cause to be preserved in a museum, specimens illustrating the 
geology, mineralogy, soils, plants, valuable woods, and what- 



216 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

ever else may be discovered in Georgia of scientific or econom 
ical value." 

In compliance with this Act, His Excellency Gov. James M. 
Smith appointed Dr. George Little, Professor of Mineralogy 
and Geology in the State University of Mississippi, who 
organized the Department in September, 1874, and is still 
prosecuting this highly important work. The appropriation 
for it is $10,000 per annum. 

GEORGIA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

This Society was chartered on July 14th, 1876, and organized 
on August 16th following, on a solid basis of stock subscribed, 
and with a membership of many of the most active and intelli 
gent Horticulturists in the State. 

Its officers are a President, a Yice-President for each Con 
gressional District, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. The Presi 
dent, Secretary, Treasurer, and half the Vice-Presidents are 
elected annually. 

Its membership consists of stockholders and annual mem 
bers. The shares are $10 each, 10 per cent of which is paid 
in at present. Authorized stock, $10,000, with a margin of 
extension of $50,000. 

Stockholders have exclusive control of all questions of 
finance. 

Annual members pay an annual fee of $2.00 each, and have 
full privileges of membership except in matters relating to 
finance. 

The meetings of the Society may be annual or semi-annual 
at the option of the Society. At present, it holds an annual 
convention and exhibition during the first week in August. 

The office of the Society, under the charter, may be either 
at Atlanta, Macon, or Augusta, or at either of them alter 
nately. 

P. J. Berkmans, of Augusta, is President ; J. S. Newman, 
Atlanta, Secretary ; and H. J. Peter, Macon, Treasurer. 

This organization represents a very important interest, 
which needs only proper direction to be developed into a 
Commercial and Domestic importance of no mean consider 
ation. 



NEWSPAPERS. 217 



NEWSPAPERS IN GEORGIA. 

There are 9 daily, 91 weekly, and 4 monthly newspapers 
and periodicals in Georgia, having an aggregate circulation of 
about 150,000 copies, classified as follows : 

Daily. 9, News and Political aggregate circulation, 
35,900. (This includes the daily, tri- weekly, and weekly edi 
tions of these papers ; and these weeklies are not counted 
with the other weeklies of the State.) 

Weekly. 84, News and Political aggregate circulation, 
74,500. 

Weekly. 4, Religious aggregate circulation, 19,500. 
Weekly. 2, Literary aggregate circulation, 11,500. 

Weekly. 1, Agricultural aggregate circulation, 4,500. 

Monthly. 2, Medical aggregate circulation, 1,550. 

Monthly. 2, Agricultural aggregate circulation, 2,850. 



III. THE PRODUCTIONS. 



THE third and last great division of our subject is PRODUC 
TION. 

We have treated of the COUNTRY and the PEOPLE ; it 
remains to treat of the results of the labor of the People 
applied to the Country. 

This takes two forms viz., wealth, or the accumulation of 
past Production, and current or annual Production. Both are 
the results of Man s work applied to Nature. 

Previous to 1861, Georgia compared very favorably with 
the other States of the Union in wealth, ranking 6th in 
1850 and 8th in 1860. 

The results of the war, however, destroyed the accumula 
tions of half a century, reducing the aggregate wealth of the 
people of the State from $672,322,777 in 1860 to $191,235,520 
in 1868. It would therefore be unjust to compare the wealth 
of Georgia now with that of States which did not suffer similar 
losses as the result of the war ; neither would it be just to 
compare the wealth of Georgia before the war with her wealth 
since, without giving due consideration to the true cause of the 
reduction shown by the statistical reports since that time. 

The only just terms of comparison, therefore, between 
Georgia and one of the Northern States, is the progress made 
during a given period since the close of the war. Even in 
this comparison, due allowance must be made for the dis 
organization of the entire labor system, the radical and abrupt 
change in the relations of labor and capital, and the difficulties 
attending the readjustment of those elements of production in 
the face of external interference with the functions of State 



PRODUCTIONS THEIR VARIETY. 219 

Government, as well as the social and business relations of 
labor and capital. 

Notwithstanding all these difficulties, Georgia compares 
very favorably with the most prosperous of her Northern 
sisters, in the percentage of increase of wealth for the 1 years 
ending w r ith 1875. 

During that period, the wealth of Georgia increased 52 per 
cent, while that of Ohio increased only 39 per cent. While 
Georgia is poor compared with States not injuriously affected 
by the war, she has taken the lead of those which suffered 
serious loss by the destruction or depreciation of values, and 
is contesting closely the ratio of progress with the most pros 
perous. 

Perhaps the best evidence of what may be done under any 
given set of circumstances, is what has already been done. It 
is proposed, therefore, to give well-authenticated facts in the 
history of Georgia production, rather than mere speculative 
statements of what may be done. The mere opinion of any 
one man or set of men may be controverted by the opinion 
of others who are cognizant of the same facts ; but when facts 
established by affidavit of disinterested parties are presented, 
the reader is supplied with the highest possible evidence, 
except his own personal observation. Results thus established 
will be hereafter introduced. 

VARIETY OF PRODUCTS, AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL. 

There is no single State in the Union with such variety of 
climate and production as Georgia possesses. There is nothing 
grown in any of the States except Florida which can not be 
profitably grown in Georgia. A few tropical fruits grow in 
Southern Florida which can not be raised in Georgia. 

The following products grow successfully in the State viz. : 

Cereals. *-Corn, Wheat, Oats, Rye, Barley, and Rice all 
the cereals-*-are grown on a large scale except Rye and Barley, 
which are grown principally for winter and early spring 
pasturage. 

The Textiles. Cotton, Wool, Flax, Hemp, Jute, Ramie, and 
Silk all grow well in Georgia, but the culture of Cotton has 
largely overshadowed the others. 



220 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

Sugar, Synqi, and Molasses are made on a considerable 
scale in the southern part of this State from tropical Cane, 
and Sorghum Syrup in the middle and northern sections. 

Tobacco of very fine quality is grown in any portion of the 
State, where proper attention is given to it, but it is not 
extensively cultivated for market, though many farms produce 
a home supply. 

Peas and Beans of every description are grown with little 
difficulty in every county in the State, and what is known as 
the Cow or Field Pea is a crop of great importance in all the 
Cotton-belt of the State, both as a source of forage and soil 
fertilization. 

The Ground Nuts Pindars, Goobers, and Chufas are 
grown A r ery cheaply, yielding largely, principally to be 
gathered by hogs. 

Hoots and Tubers of every kind grow finely, and are receiving 
more attention each succeeding year. Among those principally 
raised are Sweet and Irish Potatoes, Turnips, Carrots, Pars 
nips, and Mangel- Wurzel. 

An excellent article of Tea has been grown in the south 
eastern part of the State, and succeeds well in other portions. 

Indigo grows wild in the lower part of the State, and was, 
at one time, cultivated to some extent, but has been over 
shadowed by Cotton culture. 

Fruits. Every variety of fruit known to the temperate zone 
succeeds in Georgia, except the Cranberry and Sweet Cherry. 
Vegetables. Every variety of Vegetables is cultivated suc 
cessfully. In the larger portion of the State, fresh Vegetables 
in great variety may be gathered from the garden throughout 
the winter. 

STOCK. There has been but little attention to stock-raising, 
except in individual instances, in consequence of the absorbing 
interest felt in Cotton-culture, which has left little time or 
area for successful stock-raising. The results attained by 
those who have given attention to it, show that Georgia is 
admirably adapted to stock of every kind especially so to 
Sheep. 

POULTRY. Poultry of every kind are raised with perfect 
success the Turkey and Duck being found wild in our forests 
and streams. 



FOKEST PRODUCTS AREAS OF STAPLE CROPS. 221 

FOREST PRODUCTS. In the older parts of the State, much 
of the finest forests have been destroyed to make room for 
cultivation, but in portions of Middle and Northern Georgia, 
there is still an abundant supply of hard- wood lumber, suitable 
for manufacturing Railroad-Cars, Wagons, and Agricultural 
Implements, besides a great variety suitable for manufacturing 
furniture ; also forests of soft yellow pine in North-west 
Georgia ; while in Southern Georgia there are millions of 
acres of magnificent yellow-pine forests suitable for general 
building purposes, shipbuilding, etc. Within the last few 
years, Turpentine Plantations have been opened in these 
forests, for the purpose of manufacturing naval stores. Large 
quantities of timber and lumber are being annually shipped 
from Brunswick and Darien, to Northern, European, and South 
American ports. In the south-eastern portion of the State, 
the Live Oak a valuable wood for shipbuilding abounds. 

GRASSES. There are grasses adapted to every section of the 
State, both for pasturage and hay, surpassing in annual pro 
duction, under careful culture, the heaviest yield per acre, those 
portions of the United States in which Hay is a staple crop, 
as will be shown under the results of Improved Culture, which 
are to follow. 



AREAS OF PRODUCTION OF STAPLE CROPS. 

While there are general outlines of the production of the 
various crops, each sometimes crosses the general line under 
favorable circumstances of soil and altitude. 

Corn and Oats are cultivated in every county in the State. 

The Wheat area proper extends from the northern border of 
the State to the general line of division between the Primary 
and Tertiary, and Primary and Cretaceous formations, which 
conforms roughly to the falls of the rivers, reaching from the 
Savannah River above Augusta, following generally the line 
of the Georgia Railroad to Warrenton, the Macon and Augusta 
Railroad to Macon, thence north of the line of the South 
western Railroad to Butler, and thence to the falls of the 
Chattahoochee at Columbus. By rather a strange coincidence 
the area of Sugar-Cane culture extends from the southern 



222 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

boundary of the State to the above general limit of the Wheat 
area, each seeming to be generally controlled by the combina 
tion of elevation and soil the Wheat selecting greater eleva 
tion and stiff er soils; the Cane the lower elevation and 
silicious soils each occasionally passing over the general line 
when the above conditions are favorable Wheat being suc 
cessfully grown even to the southern boundary, in localities 
of unusual elevation and on soils having a considerable admix 
ture of clay, or with a clay subsoil. Sorghum covers the 
same general area as Wheat, but encroaches more uniformly 
upon the Cane area than does Wheat. 

The area of upland Cotton culture proper, reaches from a 
line on the North, extending from the Savannah River through 
Athens and Atlanta to the Alabama line, to the Florida line 
on the South, and to the head of tide-water on the South-east. 
This area has been practically extended 50 miles further 
North, by the use of stimulating fertilizers. 

The most productive part of the Cotton area is Middle 
Georgia proper and South-west Georgia. 

The area of Sea Island or long staple Cotton proper, extends 
from the head of tide-water to the ocean, and includes the 
Islands, being the same as that of lowland Rice. The latter 
has been very successfully cultivated, however, as far into the 
interior as Pike County, more than 100 miles from the 
ocean, under favorable circumstances of alluvial soil suscep 
tible of irrigation, from which it appears that the essential 
conditions of its successful growth are rather alluvial soil and 
irrigation, than proximity to the sea or a very low elevation. 

Upland Rice is grown on a small scale in all the Cotton-belt 
proper, and would be grown more extensively if the process 
of hulling it could be rendered less tedious by the invention of 
some simple and cheap machine for that purpose. 

Clover grows well on any fertile clay or clay-loam soil in 
the Wheat-belt proper. Lucerne succeeds well on any soil in 
any locality in the State, if it is made rich and properly pre 
pared. 

The Field Pea is grown in every section of the State, but is 
cultivated principally in Middle and Lower Georgia as a field 
crop. The usual manner of its culture is between the rows of 
corn the peas being planted at the second working of the 



POTATOES FRUITS. 223 

corn, and ploughed once, when the corn is cultivated the last 
time. The peas usually make but little growth until the corn 
has nearly reached maturity, when they take possession of the 
soil and make a very rapid growth. It is a very cheap and 
valuable crop, being valuable as food for man and beast, as 
well as a fertilizer of the soil nearly equal in value, as such, 
to Clover or Lucerne. 

Sweet Potatoes are grown in nearly every county in the 
State (a small portion of North-east Georgia being the excep 
tion), and Tarnips in all parts the former succeeding best on 
sandy soil, the latter on rich sandy loam. 

The Irish Potato produces well in every section of the 
State, but the first crop matures too early in Middle and 
Lower Georgia to be easily preserved through the following 
winter. A second crop may be raised in these sections by 
planting the product of the Spring crop in July or August, 
and properly mulching them to retain sufficient moisture to 
cause them to germinate. The second crop, from reproduction, 
is, in favorable seasons, often as good as the first, and keeps 
well through the winter. The mountain region of North 
Georgia is the best adapted to the production of the Irish 
Potato for market, since, at that elevation, the crop does not 
mature so early that it may not be easily kept through the 
winter. They are profitably cultivated on the coast for an 
early supply of Northern markets. 

FRUITS. The Apple succeeds well in every portion of the 
State where there is an elevation of 400 or 500 feet, and a clay 
soil or subsoil, both of which are generally found combined in 
Upper-Middle and Northern Georgia. The trees do not attain 
such size in Lower-Middle and South-west Georgia as in the 
Mountain regions, nor do they live so long ; but the coloring 
and flavor of the fruit in the Cotton-belt are superior to that 
grown in the more elevated regions of the northern part of the 
State. Near the coast and in many other parts of Southern 
Georgia, the soil is too sandy and the elevation insufficient 
to sustain healthy trees. 

The Pear grows w r ell in every section of the State where 
proper attention is given to the preparation and fertilization of 
the soil the only difficulty being in the prevalence of the 
blight of the trees. Thomas County, Ga., has, thus far, 



224 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

almost escaped this scourge. With the exception of a few 
localities, its culture is confined to Northern and Middle 
Georgia. The latter section, though producing smaller trees, 
far surpasses the former in quality of fruit. 

One reason for the short Duration of the Life of Apple and 
Pear Trees in Middle and Southern Georgia, is found in the 
fact, that owing to the long growing season the trees make 
a second growth in August and September, in which the 
tendency is more to the production of fruit-buds than wood- 
buds the Spring growth being devoted mainly, in a thrifty 
tree, to the production of wood-buds for the next year s 
growth. This being the case, trees not unfrequently produce 
crops of fruit annually for 10 years in Middle and Southern 
Georgia, while biennial production is the rule farther North. 
The annual fruitage produces an unusual drain upon the vital 
power of the tree, which requires extraordinary fertilization. 
The necessity of this has not been recognized generally by 
fruit-growers, and the necessary food has not been supplied. 
Trees grown in proximity to dwellings or horse-lots, where 
they receive an accidental supply of manure, are found to 
possess unusual longevity. 

Middle Georgia and the elevated plateaus of the South 
western portion of the State seem to be the home of the 
Peach, which fact needs only to be sufficiently appreciated by 
the people of those sections to induce them to embark in its 
culture on a large scale, to make it a prominent source of 
revenue. Some parties who have cultivated on a sufficient 
scale to ship by the car-load, have found it a lucrative business. 
By cultivating the early varieties, we have a monopoly of the 
markets of the Northern cities for a month, while prices are 
ranging highest. The same may be said of Pears. Our whole 
crop of Bartlett and Duchess Pears could be sold in New York 
before those of Virginia even, are ripe. 

Grapes grow well in every section of the State, and in suffi 
cient variety for every purpose, though but little attention 
has thus far been paid to wine-making. The Scuppernong is 
peculiarly adapted to Middle and Southern Georgia, seldom 
failing to produce a good crop, never killed by frost, and 
entirely free from all disease and insect pests. All that it 
needs is room enough in which to " spread itself." 



FRUITS MELONS RESULTS OF HIGH CULTURE. 225 

Figs and Pomegranates grow admirably in Middle and 
Southern Georgia, needing no protection in winter except in 
the upper part of the middle belt. 

The Olive succeeds well on the coast, and was formerly 
cultivated, but is now quite abandoned. 

The Pecan and English Walnut succeed well, and are being 
planted to some extent. 

Raspberries, Strawberries, Mulberries, Cherries, and Plums 
are grown in profusion in every part of the State. 

The semi-tropical fruits Oranges, Lemons, and JBananas 
are successfully grown in the southern and coast tiers of 
Counties. 

The Watermelons and Cantaloupes of portions of Middle 
Georgia are quite celebrated for their quality, and are becom 
ing a source of considerable revenue. Within a few years, the 
Watermelon crop of Richmond County has grown to consid 
erable commercial importance. In 1874, 316,450 Melons were 
sold in or shipped from Augusta. The soil of Richmond and 
several adjoining counties seems to be peculiarly adapted to 
the production of Watermelons and Cantaloupes ; though 
they grow to great perfection on sandy soils, in many parts of 
the State. 

In Thomas County may be seen, in addition to all the agri 
cultural productions of the temperate and semi-tropical zones, 
the Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Pomegranate, Fig, Quince, 
Cherry, Grape, Raspberry, Blackberry, Strawberry, Mulberry, 
Orange, Lemon, and Banana all growing within the same 
orchard. There are few countries thus favored by such a 
combination of soil and climate. 

In less than a score of years, the fruit crop of Georgia will 
be second only to Cotton in commercial importance, if proper 
attention is given in aid of natural advantages. 



RESULTS, SHOWING THE CAPACITY OF GEORGIA SOIL UNDER 
IMPROVED CULTURE. 

In order to illustrate the capacity of the soil of Georgia under 
proper preparation and fertilization, such as is given in the 
more densely settled portions of the world, a few results are 
taken from the Transactions of the State and County Fairs 



226 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

during the last few years all on affidavit of disinterested 
parties. 

In 1873, Mr. R. H. Hardaway in Thomas County, produced 
on upland, 119 bushels of Corn on 1 acre, which yielded a 
net profit of $77.17. 

This year (1876), Mr. G. J. Drake, of Spalding County, pro 
duced 74 bushels of Corn on 1 acre of upland. 

In 1873, Mr. S. W. Leak, of Spalding County, produced on 
1 acre, 40^ bushels of Wheat, worth $80.50; cost, $14.50 
net profit, $66.00. 

To illustrate the fertilizing effects of a Bermuda Grass sod 
of long standing, the following results obtained by Col. A. J. 
Lane in Hancock County are given. 

The first year after the Bermuda sod was broken, he 
harvested 1,800 Ibs. of Seed-cotton per acre ; the second year 
2,800 Ibs. per acre. The third crop was Corn, manured with 
Cotton-seed in the usual way and quantity ; yield, 65 bushels 
per acre. The fourth year he harvested 42 bushels of Wheat 
per acre. Neither the Cotton nor Wheat was fertilized. 

Mr. J. F. Madden, this year (1876), produced on 1 acre, in 
Spalding County, 137 bushels of Oats. 

Capt. E. T. Davis, of Thomas County, produced in 1873, 96^ 
bushels of rust-proof Oats per acre. After the Oats were har 
vested, he planted the same land in cotton, and gathered 800 
Ibs. Seed-cotton per acre. 

Mr. T. C. Warthen, of Washington County, produced in 
1873, on 1.1125 acres, 6,917 pounds of Seed-cotton, equivalent 
to 5 bales of 461 pounds each, worth at the average price 
that year 17^ cents $403.37 ; which, less the cost $148.58 
gives a net profit of $254.79 for the above area a very small 
fraction over one acre. 

Mr. R. M. Brooks, of Pike County, produced in 1873, on 5 
acres of bottom-land, 500 bushels of Rice, at a total cost of 
$75.00, giving a net income of $300.00 on 5 acres. 

Mr. John J. Parker, of Thomas County, produced in 1874, on 
1 acre, 694^- gallons of Cane Syrup, worth, at 75 cents per 
gallon, $520.87; total cost of production, $77.50 net profit, 
$443.37. 

Mr. J. R. Winters, of Cobb County, produced in 1873, on 



RESULTS OF IMPROVED FARMING. 227 

1.15 acres, 6,575 pounds of dry Clover Hay at the first cutting 
of second year s crop. 

Mr. R. B. Baxter, of Hancock County, harvested at the first 
cutting, first year s crop, 1872, from land which* had been 
covered with a complete sod of Bermuda Grass for many years 
until a few years before seeding to clover, 4,862 pounds dry 
Clover Hay per acre. 

Dr. T. P. Janes, of Greene County, produced in 1871, 5 tons 
of Clover Hay per acre in one season two cuttings. 

Mr. Patrick Long, of Bibb County, harvested in August, 
1873, on an acre of land from which he had gathered a crop 
of Cabbages in June of the same year, 8,646 pounds of native 
Crab-grass Hay. 

Mr. S. W. Leak, of Spalding County, gathered, in the fall of 
1873, on an acre of land from which he-had harvested in June 
40 bushels of Wheat, 10,726 pounds of Pea- Vine Hay. This 
acre yielded in Wheat a net profit of $66.00 in June, and the 
following fall in Pea- Vine Hay, $233.08 making in one year 
a net profit from 1 acre of $299.08. 

Mr. L. B. Willis, of Greene County, harvested, in June, 1873, 
from lij- acres of land, 20 bushels of Wheat, and the following 
October, 27,130 pounds of Corn-Forage. From the Forage 
he received a net profit per acre of $159.22. 

Mr. R. Peters, Jr., of Gordon County, harvested in 1874, 
from 3 acres of Lucerne, 4 years old, 14 tons and 200 pounds 
of Hay, or 9,400 pounds per acre. This land was mowed 4 
times viz., May 17th, July 6th, August 3d, and September 30th. 

Dr. W. Moody, of Greene County, harvested at one cutting, 
from an acre of Oconee River bottom in 1874, 13,953 pounds 
of Bermuda Grass Hay, at a total cost of $12.87; worth, at 1^ 
cents per pound, $209.29 a net profit per acre of $196.42. 

Capt. C. W. Howard produced on Lookout Mountain, 
Walker County, in 1874, on fresh land which cost him 25 
cents per acre, 10S-J- bushels of very fine Irish Potatoes, with 
one hoeing and one ploughing, the whole cost of production per 
acre being $11.25 ; net proceeds of 108^ bushels sold in 
Atlanta for $97.25. While this was not a large yield under 
favorable circumstances, it was a very fine yield for freshly 
cleared, uiimanured land, and the expense incurred in their 
production, and illustrates the feasibility of Northern Georgia 



228 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

(a large portion of which equals Lake County, Ohio, for the 
production of the Irish Potato, without the risks of the 
northern section) producing potatoes enough to supply all of 
our markets during the winter. The mountains and valleys 
of Northern Georgia are admirably adapted to the production of 
Irish Potatoes and Cabbages, with which our cities have 
generally been supplied from States north of us. 

Mr. John Dyer, of Bibb County, produced in 1873, on 1 
acre, at a cost of $8.00, 398.7 bushels of Sweet Potatoes, 
which, at 75 cents per bushel, gave a net profit per acre of 
$290.92. 

Dr. J. S. Lavender, of Pike County, in 1873, produced on 
1 acre 1,552 bushels of turnips. 

The following illustrates what may be made by diversified 
farming properly conducted. 

At the Fair of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in 
1874, a premium of $50.00 was awarded to Mr. Wiley W. 
Groover, of Brooks County, for best results from a 2-horse 
farm. His farm consisted of 126^ acres, on which crops to 
the value of $3,258.25 were produced that year. Total cost of 
production, $1,045.00 ; net proceeds, $2,213.25. No guano 
or other commercial fertilizers were used on this farm that 
year, or for 5 years preceding. The crops cultivated were 
Oats, Corn, Peas, Ground Peas, Sweet Potatoes, Sugar-Cane, 
and Cotton. The stock reared on the farm that year were 
not included in the schedule of products. 

While the foregoing are exceptional cases, far exceeding 
the usual results, they serve to illustrate the capacity of 
Georgia soil when fertilized and properly cultivated, with 
brains applied under the guidance of Science. 

Agriculture was formerly regarded as a mere Art empiric 
in all its branches. Now, it is generally recognized in Georgia 
as an Applied Science. The old prejudice against " book- 
farming," as that to which science has been applied is called, 
is rapidly giving way to enlightened progress. The truths 
eliminated by scientific research are now eagerly appropriated 
by the advanced Agriculturists. Our agriculture is on the 
ascending scale, and the time is not far distant when such 
results as those given will be common occurrences. 



RAISING HORSES, MULES, AND CVTTLE. 229 



STOCK-RAISING IN GEORGIA. 

The same obstacle which has been in the way of every other 
diversified interest in Georgia viz., Cotton culture has 
seriously militated against the bestowal of proper attention 
upon raising Stock. It is true Stock has been, all things 
considered, successfully raised in every section of Georgia 
not because proper attention has been bestowed upon them, 
but because the climate and vegetation have so favored their 
growth as to make them profitable in spite of gross neglect. 

The results given under the head of " Improved Culture," 
demonstrate the fact that in all sections of the State abundant 
forage crops can be raised for every description of Stock. 

HORSES AND MULES. The results of inquiry made of the 
farmers in 1875, demonstrate the fact that horses and mules 
can be raised in Georgia at half what they cost when purchased 
from the West. Not only this, but those raised in Georgia 
are notoriously more hardy and serviceable than those bred 
further North. 

But little attention has been given to breeding horses and 
mules, because of the absorbing influence of Cotton culture, 
which prevented attention to pasture-lands ; indeed, Georgia, 
with the exception of the Northern portion, has always been 
essentially a planting region. The difficulties of the labor 
problem are now compelling land-owners to look to Stock as 
a solution to this knotty question, since less hired labor is 
required, and consequently less expense and vexation attend 
it than planting. 

CATTLE. There has been but little attention given to the 
improvement of the breed of Cattle in the State, and insuffi 
cient care given even to the common Stock. The whole available 
force of the larger portion of the State has been engaged in 
the destruction of grass for the last century, and yet it still 
grows. One tithe of the effort that has been bestowed upon 
the destruction of grass would clothe our fields with such a 
carpet of verdure as would render Georgia the finest Stock 
region on the globe. 

The very large breeds of Cattle are not adapted to the 
Middle and Southern portions of Georgia, but the smaller 



230 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

breeds Jersey, Ayrshire, and Devon are admirably adapted 
to all sections of the State. The cross of the Shorthorn on 
the native Stock does well, where sufficient pasturage is 
afforded ; but the above breeds all succeed well, either pure 
or as grades resulting from their cross upon the native. 

In much the larger portion of the State, Cattle may subsist 
upon green food throughout the year. In many sections there 
are cane swamps which afford excellent natural pasture all 
winter. Small grain sown early in the fall affords abundant 
pasturage through the winter, and is not materially injured by 
being grazed during moderately dry weather. Oats, Rye, and 
Barley, may be thus pastured, if sown in August or Septem 
ber, and yet produce abundant harvests the following summer. 
They may be pastured until the middle of February or first 
of March, according to the latitude and elevation. The 
heaviest crops of Oats that have been made have generally 
succeeded winter grazing. Any farm, by proper management, 
may afford green pasturage for Stock during the larger por 
tion of winter. 

Besides the pasturage which small grain crops afford, there is 
no difficulty in securing abundant crops of cultivated or 
natural grass for hay or pasture. The Field Pea, which grows 
so luxuriantly on all of the sandy soils of the Primary, Creta 
ceous, and Tertiary formations, supplies the place of Clover 
which thrives on the more elevated clay and clay loams of 
Middle and Northern Georgia. 

The most valuable and reliable grass, and one which is 
destined to aid largely in revolutionizing the system of agri 
culture in the Cotton-belt of Georgia, as well as to renovate 
the worn hills, is the Bermuda perhaps the most valuable 
pasture grass in the world, surpassing, in nutritive properties 
and compactness of sod, the famous Blue Grass of Kentucky, 
having, according to the analysis of Dr. Ravenel, 14 per 
cent of the albuminoids. A Bermuda Grass sod, properly 
managed, will afford excellent pasture for Cattle for 9 months 
and for sheep the entire year. There will be but little demand 
for dry forage in Middle and Lower Georgia such is the 
mildness of the climate and the character of the spontaneous 
growth ; but there is no difficulty in supplying excellent dry 
forage in any desired quantity and at very small cost. 



SIIEEr-RAISIXG. 231 

Lucerne, being perennial, is perhaps the most economical 
for green soiling or for hay, since it can be cut so early in the 
spring, and so frequently, and ranks so high in nutrition and 
in soil improvement; but Corn forage, the various Millets, 
Clover, native Grasses, and Pea-Vine Hay, as well as Ber 
muda Grass Hay, can all be saved, of excellent quality and in 
large quantity, for winter use, when necessary. 

Cotton-seed, steamed or boiled, and mixed with cut hay and 
turnips, affords a cheap and excellent food for milch cows. 

There is no market, as yet, for milk, except for that pro 
duced in the vicinity of cities ; but the manufacture of butter 
is very profitable to the extent of supplying the demand of 
non-producers in the State. What is known as Wiregrass 
affords fine spring pasture in the pine forests of Southern 
Georgia, where the largest herds of cattle and sheep are kept, 
little more care being taken than to gather them up once a 
year for marking. 

SHEEP. There are few sections of the world in which Sheep 
can be raised more profitably than in Georgia. When the 
value of Bermuda Grass is appreciated by the farmers, and the 
thin and rolling portions of their farms are clothed with it 
which seems to have been intended especially for Sheep 
Georgia will sustain a sheep for every acre of territory; and 
37,000,000 of Sheep would be worth to their owners, in the 
aggregate, $37,000,000 net per annum nearly double the 
present gross value of the Cotton crop of the State. 

Like other Stock, Sheep have, thus far, received very little 
attention, but have been so favored by climate and vegetation 
as to pay, even under our neglectful system, an average of 63 
per cent per annum net profit on the investment the average 
cost of raising a pound of wool in the State being only 6 cents? 
and the net profit on each pound being 27^- cents. 

Mr. David Ayres, with 3,500 Sheep, of common stock, which 
range on the wiregrass of Southern Georgia without a shep 
herd, makes an annual profit of 90 per cent on his investment 
and labor the latter consisting only in marking and shearing. 

Mr. feobert C. Humber, with the cross of the Merino on the 
common stock, makes a clear profit per annum of 100 per cent 
on his investment and labor. His Sheep have a Bermuda Grass 
pasture, and receive no attention, except regular salting. 



232 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The sources of pasturage mentioned under the head of 
Cattle are equally available for Sheep. 

Only a few experiments have been made with soiling Sheep 
on turnips. Mr. David Dickson herded his Sheep on several 
acres of turnips, and gathered the next year 4,000 pounds of 
Seed-cotton per acre an increase of 3,000 pounds per acre as 
the effect of folding. 

There has never been a fair experiment in sheep-raising in 
Southern Georgia, combining proper attention to the flock, a 
judicious selection and crossing, with a reasonable provision 
for the best development of frame and fleece. There has been 
but one in North Georgia. Mr. R. Peters has given stock- 
raising generally very thorough attention with satisfactory 
results, both as to the stock and the incidental improvement of 
the soil, the capacity of which for pasturing purposes has in 
creased tenfold in 20 years. Mr. P. is now breeding with most 
satisfactory results the pure Angora Goat, which will, when 
properly understood and appreciated, be extensively bred in 
all the mountain and hill country of the State. 

HOGS. The peculiar adaptation of our climate and soil for 
the production of roots, tubers, and other crops that may be 
harvested by the Hog, renders the raising of this important 
food-animal both easy and cheap. The only difficulties in the 
way of the production of an abundant supply of Pork in Geor 
gia, are found in the ravages of cholera and thieves, and the in 
disposition of the farmers to plant crops for the especial benefit 
of the Hog, and to give other proper attention. The removal 
of the last two obstacles would, to a large extent, if not 
entirely, remove the first two. With proper attention to the 
production of such crops as the Field Pea, Ground Pea, Chufa, 
Sweet Potato, and small grain, with the addition of Clover on 
soils suited to its growth, Pork can be raised in Georgia as 
cheaply as in any part of the United States, and almost with 
out the consumption of Corn, except to harden the flesh for a 
short time before killing. 

POULTRY. There are no obstacles to successful Poultry- 
raising in Georgia, except the indisposition of the people to 
give proper attention to food and range. With Bermuda Grass 
for summer and small grain pasture for winter, they can have 
the necessary green food throughout the year. The Field Pea 



MANUFACTURING. 233 

and Chufa, with a small admixture of the varieties of small 
grain will afford ample supply of grain, while there is, with the 
exception of a few months, an abundant supply of animal food 
gathered from the range in the form of bugs and worms. 
There has been some cholera, but this has been generally pre 
vented by equalizing the supply of animal and vegetable food 
consumed by the fowls throughout the year. This is easily 
done by supplying grain in spring and summer to neutralize 
the effects of a surplus of animal food, and meat in winter to 
supply its deficiency. 

Nature has liberally supplied every thing that climate and 
soil can contribute to successful Stock or Poultry-raising in 
Georgia. The difficulties to be overcome do not arise from 
the country, but from the habits of the people. 



MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION. 

The various manufacturing interests of Georgia are yet in 
their infancy, but are destined to play no insignificant part in 
her future destiny. 

During the existence of Slavery, the surplus capital and 
annual net earnings of her people were invested in slaves and 
land, and the whole energies of the people devoted to primary 
production. The habits of the people were thus formed, and 
thought and production directed in a peculiar channel from 
which it is difficult to divert them. 

There has been but little surplus capital for investment 
within the last decade, in consequence of the want of a proper 
equilibrium of the productive forces of the State. When this 
equilibrium is finally adjusted, on such a basis that there will 
be an annual surplus capital for investment, it will naturally 
seek manufacturing industry, either for converting our ex- 
haustless beds of ore into metals, or the metals into machinery; 
or for converting our cotton and wool into yarns or cloth. 
The value and extent of our mineral wealth will be demon 
strated by the Geological Survey now in progress, and 
attention drawn to the ^immense water-power the cheapest 
in the world now running waste to the ocean. 

There are now 36 Cotton Factories in the State, with 123,- 



234 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

233 spindles and 2,125 looms. These mills consume 50,000 
bales annually, or about 10 per cent of the crop of the State. 

There are 14 Woollen Factories, with 4,200 spindles and 135 
looms. 

Nearly all these Factories Cotton and Woollen are run 
by water-power. 

There are 1,375 grain-mills, of which 1,262 are run by water. 
There are in these 1,453 rim of stones for corn, and 556 for 
wheat. 

There are 734 saw-mills, of which 539 use water-power. 

In addition . to the above, there are Wagon and Carriage 
Factories, Iron Foundries and Furnaces, Potteries, Tanneries, 
Sash and Blind Factories, Turpentine Distilleries, etc. 

The following extracts from an address of Hon. E. Stead- 
man, read before the Convention of the Georgia State Agri 
cultural Society which met in Gainesville in August, 1876, 
set forth the advantages of the South for the manufacture of 
Cotton. Mr. Steadman has had large experience in manufac 
turing Cotton in Georgia, and is thoroughly familiar with the 
subject. The general principles of these extracts apply with 
almost equal force to other manufactures. 

" 1. We, having cotton at hand, our facto: ies can be supplied at one 
cent less per pound than any Northern or European cotton-mill. 

"2. By manufacturing a class of goods that are adapted to our home 
consumption, the advantages over foreign and Northern cotton-mills, in 
our home market, is equal to one cent per pound on every pound of 
cotton so manufactured and sold. The two items of purchase of cotton, 
and sale of fabrics, at home, will give us a profit of two cents per pound 
upon the cotton so consumed. 

" The amount of cotton manufactured with a capital of $100,000, being 
2,286 pounds, on sheetings, per day, amounts to $45.72, and, per annum, 
to $12,616, making, in this item alone, 12 per cent on the capital 
invested. 

"3. The wages paid to operatives in cotton factories in the Southern 
States, compared to the New England States, is 34 per cent less. 

"4. The cost of water or steam power is much less. 

"5. The cost of material for building mills and operatives houses is 
much less. 

" 6. The cost of subsistence is much less. 

" 7. Our climate is more favorable for th business. 

" 8. Cotton factories can now be constructed so as to use seed-cotton, by 
the use of a roller-gin (which obviates all the danger from fire incident 



MANUFACTURING COTTON. 235 

to saw-gins), tlms saving over factories using bale cotton, in the South, 
12 to 15 per cent, while goods thus manufactured will be more valu 
able. 

"I claim that cotton-mills built now, with the latest improvements in 
machinery (in the South), can manufacture goods at a less cost than at 
the North, leaving out the advantages of cotton and a home market. 

"I claim that a cotton factory can be built here, of the same capacity, 
for less money than in New England the cost of location and building 
material being as much less as will pay freight and charges on the 
machinery. To present my ideas practically, for your consideration, I 
will give an estimate for a small factory, and its operations for one year, 
also the data to substantiate the results claimed by me. 

" The sum of $100,000 properly expended in houses, power (water or 
steam), and improved machinery, would put in operation 4,000 spindles 
and 100 looms, to manufacture 4-4 sheetings. Such goods are saleable at 
all seasons of the year, never being out of fashion, and as staple as the 
cotton from which they are made. They are the plainest goods made by 
machinery, requiring less skill than many other goods, and their market 
value is as well known as that of the raw material, hence all ran learn 
the facts, as well as a practical manufacturer. Such a cotton factory 
would produce, per day, under proper management, 6,000 yards of 4-4 
sheetings, now worth ? cents per yard, making the product of the fac 
tory $450 as the gross earnings per day ; and per annum, of 800 days, 
$135,000. 

"The cost of manufacturing that quantity and quality of goods (6,000 
yards, or 2,000 pounds of standard sheetings) would be, at this time, as 
follows viz. : 2,286 pounds of low middling cotton, worth now 9^ cents 
per pound, per day $217.17. 

Wages of 100 men, women, and children, an average of $1 per 

day $100 00 

Sundry expenses viz. : repairs, supplies, etc 30 00 

Cost of selling the goods, worth $450, at 7 per cent 33 75 

Total gross expenses $380 92 

Multiplied by 300 days (per annum), we have the sum of 114,276 00 

Deducted from the gross earnings, leaves the sum of 21,724 00 

as the net earnings per annum, or 21f per cent on the capital invested 
to do the above amount of work viz. : $100,000. 

"The same amount of money invested in diversified machinery, so as to 
produce a variety of fabrics, to suit the demands of the community where 
located, would be proportionately more remunerative, from the fact that 
some other fabrics, the prices of which not being so universally known, 
will command a larger price in market, while the cost of manufacture 
may not be more than that of staple cotton goods. 

" The first proof I shall offer is the operations of the Augusta factory. 
From their published reports, for the six months ending June, 1875, run- 



236 HAND-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

ning 717 looms, they made over 29 per cent on the cost of their factories, 
which was the sum of $838,567.39 an average of $1,169.55 per loom. 
And the above profits were made after paying all expenses, including an 
item of interest of $11,834.04. 

" The second fact I will give, is the action of the Eagle and Phoenix 
Manufacturing Company, of Columbus, who are building an additional 
factory with the accumulated profits of their factories, after paying good 
annual dividends to their stockholders. I will take opportunity to refer 
the doubting and croaking, who claim that we can not do any thing, to 
the Presidents and Superintendents of the above manufacturing compa 
nies, as samples of what can be done by others. I will also add, that the 
salaries paid by these companies to their presidents and superintendents 
(who can not be excelled in point of business capacity) are higher than 
any railroad, banking, or other corporation in this State. After paying 
such salaries, these corporations have made and paid to their stockholders 
larger dividends than any other corporation in this State." 



FERTILIZATION. 

Georgia soil has shared the fate of that of all new countries. 
So long as virgin soil is abundant and cheap, no care is taken 
to perpetuate its virgin fertility. On the contrary, the system 
formerly pursued in the Atlantic and Gulf States, and now 
pursued in the new States of the West, seemed to be based 
upon the impression that the fertility of the soil was inex 
haustible. 

The thin soils of the Eastern States first reached the point 
of approximate exhaustion, and there the recuperative system 
was first adopted. The Tobacco-fields of the Middle Atlantic 
States next followed, and finally the Cotton-belt, where the 
principal staple was less exhausting than the cereals and 
tobacco of their Northern sisters. 

The scale has now turned in Georgia, from the exhausting 
to the restoring process. Her farmers are now building up 
their waste places by an improved system of agricultural art, 
guided by the light of applied science. Both natural and 
artificial Fertilizers are now brought into requisition by the 
prudent farmer. 

The reaction, however, from the exhaustive to the restora 
tive policy was violent, injudicious, and extravagant. Many 
supposing a liberal application of Commercial Fertilizers all 
that was necessary to restore their worn fields, expended vast 



FERTILIZING MATERIALS. 237 

sums for them, and applied large quantities per acre to their 
soils under the impression that a restoration of the mineral 
elements, which had been exhausted by injudicious culture, 
was all that was necessary. 

Experience soon taught, however, that vegetable as well as 
mineral matter was needed after so many years of clean 
culture. No question has so occupied the minds of Georgia 
farmers for the last decade as the principles of fertilization ; 
nor has their research been in vain. They have rapidly 
improA r ed in their knowledge of the principles as well as the 
most advanced practice of plant and soil fertilization. 

They are as yet confining their attention mainly to plant 
fertilization ; but the more advanced and progressive are grad 
ually availing themselves of the numerous resources which the 
mineral and vegetable kingdoms afford for permanent soil 
improvement. The rich and abundant deposits of lime and 
marl, combined with the facility with which various legumi 
nous plants grow in our soil and climate, together with the 
great accessibility of the sources of supply of the phosphates 
in South Carolina, render the problem, both of plant and 
soil fertilization, easy and simple. 

Contrary to the generally received opinion, Cotton culture, 
properly conducted, is less injurious to the soil than any other 
hoe crop, since the seed and plant are returned to the soil 
only the lint being entirely removed. While an average crop 
of wheat (10 bushels) removes from the farm 011 which it is 
grown 32.36 pounds of plant food per acre, embracing nitro 
gen, potash, lime, magnesia, and phosphoric acid, an average 
crop of Cotton (450 pounds of Seed Cotton) removes in the 
lint only 2.75 pounds of the above elements of plant food per 
acre. 

The abundance and accessibility of Marl in the Tertiary and 
Cretaceous formations of the State, is destined to revolutionize 
the agriculture of all that section, as well as vastly improve 
the healthfulness of neighborhoods in the vicinity of swamps 
and ponds. 

The LIAVS require the Inspection and Analysis of all Com 
mercial Fertilizers sold in the State. The Commissioner of 
Agriculture is authorized to forbid the sale of any fertilizer 
which does not contain a reasonable amount of plant-food. 



238 IIAXD-BOOK OF GEORGIA. 

The farmers are thus entirely protected from imposition by the 
sale of spurious articles. For the information and protection 
of farmers, the Analyses and Commercial Values, calculated 
from the value of the elements of plant-food actually con 
tained in each brand, are published annually, under the direc 
tion of the Commissioner. 

Besides the Chemical test by Analysis, a practical soil test of 
each brand is made under rules prescribed by the Commis 
sioner, by intelligent farmers throughout the State. The 
results of these tests are reported in writing, and published for 
the information of the farmers. 

Previous to the enforcement of the Inspection Laws, litiga 
tion, arising from the refusal of farmers to pay for fertilizers, 
on the ground that they were valueless (which was sometimes 
the case), was not uncommon. Now, such cases of litigation 
are almost unheard of. 

Valuable scientific experiments with the different elements 
of plant-food and various combinations of the same, are con 
ducted by Dr. E. M. Pendleton, Professor of Practical Agri 
culture in the State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic 
Arts, on the Experimental Farm connected with the College. 

During the season of 1874-5, between September 1st, 1874, 
and May 1st, 1875, there were 48,648 tons of Commercial 
Fertilizers inspected for the Georgia market. These, at the 
average rate of $51.00 per ton, cost $2,481,048. 

During the season of 1875-6, 56,596 tons were inspected. 
These cost $2,640,203. 

Through the influence of the Inspection Laws, executed 
under the direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture, the 
Fertilizers offered for sale in Georgia in 1875-6 averaged 16 per 
cent better in quality than did those of the previous year j 
while during the same period there was an average reduction 
in price of 7 per cent. 

The use of stimulating Fertilizers has extended the area of 
Cotton culture about 50 miles further North than before their 
introduction, by hastening the maturity of the staple, and thus 
practically lengthening the season. 

Nearly half the Commercial Fertilizers purchased in Georgia 
this year were used for composting with some home material, 
such as animal manures, marl, muck, and cotton-seed, which 



COTTON-SEED. 239 

has been found, by repeated experiment, more efficacious than 
the Commercial Fertilizers alone. The compost system is 
being more generally adopted each succeeding year, and is 
materially reducing the cost of fertilization ; and at the same 
time largely increasing the supply of home manures by stimu 
lating the saving and protection under shelter, of all the 
mammal resources of the farm. 

A cotton-producing region has peculiar advantages in the 
production of manure, since, for every pound of lint produced, 
there is necessarily two pounds of seed, which is a very valua 
ble article, whether utilized as food for stock or in the manu 
facture of oil, or used as a Fertilizer. 

The average annual crop of Cotton produced in Georgia is 
525,000 bales, worth, at present prices, $21,000,000. In order 
to produce that amount of lint, 262,500 tons of seed must be 
produced. These are worth, as a Fertilizer, $3,499,125. 

When the State becomes more densely settled, the oil will 
generally be expressed and sold, leaving in the hull and 
cake all the fertilizing elements of the seed for agricultural 
purposes. 



THE END. 



INDEX. 



A 

PAGE 

Academy for the Blind 191 

Acquisitions of Territory by tlie United States 1 

African Methodist Church 200 

Age (and settlement) of Georgia 2 

Ages, Periods, Epochs, etc 19, 20, 37 to 42 

Agricultural Society, State of Georgia 206, 209, 215, 228 

Agricultural Productions, Range of, in Georgia 5 

Agricultural Population of Georgia 153 

Agricultural College, North Georgia 185 

Agricultural College, State 88, 185 

Agricultural Products, Variety of 219 

Agricultural Department 207, 209, 212 

Air 10 

Analysis of Fertilizers 212, 213, 214, 237 

Analyses of Marls 97 to 101 

Analyses of Peats 103, 104 

Analysis of Soils 106, 107, 109, 211, 213, 214 

Andrew Female College 199 

Angora Goats 232 

Appalachian Chain 124 

Apples 11, 223, 224 

Apple-Trees, Duration of their Life 224 

Area of the United States .* 1 

Area of Georgia 3, 122 

Areas of Production of Staple Crops 221 

Arbitrations 158 

Asbestus 49 

Atlanta , 4, 49, 136, 140, 142 

Atlanta and Richmond Air Line Railway 50, 64, 176 

Atlanta and West Point Railroad 60, 63, 172 

Atlanta University 187 

Atlantic and Gulf Railroad 53, 173 

Augusta 134, 139, 146 

Augusta Canal .83, 178 

Augusta and Savannah Railroad 171 

Ayres, David f 231 



242 INDEX . 

B 

Bananas 225 

Banks in Georgia 165 

Banks County 68 

Baptist Church 197 

Baptist Convention of the State of Georgia 186, 197 

Baptist Institutions of Learning 198 

Baptist Orphans Home 194 

Barley 14, 219 

Bartow County ; 43, 47, 48, 105, 109 

Baryta 18 

Bass, W. C 189 

Battle, A. J 186 

Baxter, R. B , 227 

Beans 220 

Beautiful sense of tlie 13 

Beckwith, John W 203 

Benevolent Institutions 191 to 197 

Berkmans, P. J 216 

Bermuda Grass 226, 227, 230, 231, 232 

Bibb County 43, 69, 228 

Black Lead 24 

Blackshear, J. Emmett 195 

Blind Academy 191 

Blue Ridge 49, 50, 59, 60 

Boardman, J. M 135, 138 

Boring, Jesse 194 

Boundaries of Georgia 120 

Bradshaw, J. N 189 

Brooks County 228 

Brooks, R. M 226 

Brown, Joseph E 169, 194 

Brunswick . 3 

Brunswick and Albany Railroad 53, 174 

Burke County 69, 97, 98, 107 

Butler, David E 195, 198 

C 

Catholic Church 203 

Calhoun, John C 117 

Camp s Spring 86 

Canadian Period 37 

Canal, Great Western 117, 118, 119 

Canals of Georgia 177, 178 

Cantaloupes 225 

Capacity of Georgia for Population , 153 



INDEX. 243 

Capacity of Georgia soil, shown by Results 225 to 228 

Carboniferous Age . ..38, 42 

Carroll County 69 

Cattle 229 

Central Railroad G3, 166, 171 

Centres of Population 153 

Cereals 219 

Civilization, Prevailing, of the People of Georgia 146 to 148 

Character of the first Colonists 2 

Character of the People of Georgia 13, 146, 147, 148 

Chattahoochee County 70, 99 

Chattahoochee Ridge 49, 50, 59, 60, 61 

Charlton County 43, 53 to 58, 105, 108 

Charitable (Benevolent and) Institutions 191 to 197 

Chattooga County 70 

Chemical Elements of Minerals 29, 30 

Cherokee County 71 

Cherokee Baptist Female College. 190 

Cherokee Railroad 175 

Childs, A. K 176 

Christian Church 203 

Chufas 220 

Clarkesville 131 

Clay County 43, 71, 98, 99 

Clay Slate 104 

Climate 10, 129, 131 

Clinch County 71 

Clinton, De Witt 117 

Clothing 11 

Clover 222, 223, 227 

Coal . .24, 44 to 46 

Coal Company, Dade 44 

Cobb County 71 

Cohutta Mountains. 18, 60 

Cole City 44 

Collection of Debts 157 

College of Agriculture, Georgia State. 88, 185 

College of Agriculture, North Georgia 185 

Colleges in Georgia 182 to 190 

Collingsworth Institute 199 

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church of America 199, 200 

Colquitt, A. H 208 

Columbia County 72 

Columbus 52, 134, 139 

Commercial Situation of Georgia 6, 115 to 120 

Commercial Centre of the Continent 116 

Commercial Site, Best, on the Continent 115 



244 INDEX. 

Commissioner of Agriculture 155, 211, 237 

Composting Fertilizers 238 

Congregational Church 205 

Connor, W. 193 

Conglomerate 36 

Conveyances, Record of 158 

Conyers Female College 190 

Constitution and Laws of Georgia 154 to 158 

Continental Ridges and Slopes GO, Gl, 116 

Copper 18, 28 

Cooper, Mark A 206, 208 

Coral (Fossil) 22 

Corn 219, 221, 226 

Corn Forage 227 

Cotton 11, 222, 226, 237 

Cotton, Sea Island 222 

Cotton Crop of Georgia 239 

Cotton Factories 233 to 236 

Cotton Seed as a Fertilizer 239 

Country, The 17 

Courts of Georgia . 155 

Counties, Special Geology of 42 to 58 

Crab Grass Hay 227 

Crawford High School 198 

Cretaceous and Tertiary Seas 19 

Crust of the Earth 21, 23, 24 

Crust of the Earth, Oscillations or Elevations of. 23, 24, 25 

Gumming, H. H t . 177 

Cypress Trees 54 

D 

Dade County 42, 43 to 47, 105 

Dal ton Female College 190 

Davis, E. T 226 

Da wson County , . . , 72 

Deaf and Dumb Academy , 192 

Decatur County 73 

Debts, Collection of 157 

DeKalb County 73 

Department of Agriculture 207, 209, 212 

Devonian Age 38, 42 

Diamond 24, 48 

Dickson, David 232 

Dimensions of Georgia 3 

Distribution of Estates, Law of 156 

Diversion 13 

Drainage System of the State 59 to 61 



INDEX. 245 

Drake, G. J 226 

Drift Period 20 

Dolerite 34 

Dougherty County 101, 104 

Duration of the Life of Apple and Pear Trees 224 

Dyer, John 228 

E 

Earliest Life 23 

Early County 73 

Education 13, 156 

Education of Negroes 152, 180, 181, 187, 188, 193, 200 

Edwards, James M 176 

Effects of the War (Losses by) in Georgia 7, 218, 219 

Effinghara County 98 

Elbert County 73 

Elberton Air Line Railroad 50, 177 

Elements Composing a State 4 

Elements of Matter 27 

Elevation, Relative, Test of - 122 

Elevation (Height) of Xoted Mountains in Georgia 59 

Elevations of Okefinokee Swamp 57 

Elliott, Stephen 203 

Emory College 187 

Epochs, Ages, Periods, etc 19, 20, 37 to 42 

Estates, Distribution of 156 

Executive Department of Georgia 155 

Exemptions of Property from Levy and Sale 155 

Experiments, Agricultural (See Soil Tests) 238 

External and Internal Relations of Georgia 114 

F 

Factories 233, 234, 235, 236 

Female Colleges in Georgia 188, 189, 190 

Fertilizers, Analysis of 212, 213, 214 

Fertilizers, Amount Sold in Georgia 238 

Fertilizers, Inspection of , 207, 214 

Fertilizers, Lime, Marl, etc 87 to 104 

Fertilizers, Soil, Test of 212, 213, 214, 238 

Fertilization 236 to 239 

Field Peas 222, 230, 232 

Figs 11,225 

First Settlement of Georgia 2 

First Colonists, Character of 2 

Fisher, John H 176 

Flewellen, E. A 174, 176 

Flora of Georgia (Woody Plants) 110 to 114 

Floyd County 73 

Food.. 10 



246 INDEX. 

Food for Cattle 14 

Forest Trees of Georgia 110 to 114 

Forest Products of Georgia 221 

Forsyth County 74 

Formations, Geological 37 to 42 

Fossils 22 

Franklin County 74 

Frobel, B. W 118 

Fruits 5, 10,11, 216, 220, 223 to 225 

Fulton County 43, 49, 74, 105, 106 

Future of Georgia, View of 8 

G 

Gainesville 131 

Gaboury, C. P 187 

Geology 20, 37 to 58 

Geology of Counties 42 to 58 

Geological Ages and Periods 19, 20, 37, 38, 39 

Geological Formations in Georgia 37 to 42 

Geological Map of Georgia In pocket at end of this volume. 

Geological Survey 17, 214 

Geologist, State, of Georgia 155, 207, 214 

Georgia State College of Agriculture 88, 185 

Georgia Soil, Capacity of, shown by Results 225 to 228 

Georgia Railroad CO, 64, 166, 169 

Georgia State Agricultural Society 206, 209, 215, 228 

Georgia and Ohio, Ratio of increase in Wealth in each compared. . . . 219 

Georgia, Commercial Situation 115 to 120 

Georgia, Civilization of her People 146 to 148 

Georgia, Boundaries 120 

Georgia, Character of Immigrants from different States 2, 146 to 148 

Georgia, Losses by the War 7, 218, 219 

Georgia, Natural Divisions 3, 127 

Georgia, Area, Topography 3, 122 

Georgia, Climate 10, 129, 131 

Glacial Period 1 9, 20 

Glascock County 74 

Gneiss 35 

Goats, Angora 232 

Gold 18, 19, 26,48,61 

Goobers 220 

Gordon, W. W 167 

Gordon County 75, 227 

Good Templars, Order of 193 

Government, Constitution, Laws, etc., of Georgia 154 to 158 

Gwinnett County ? 5 

Grasses. . 221 



INDEX. 247 

Grapes 224, 266 

Grant, L. P 172 

Granite 35 

Graphite 24 

Great Ridges 125 

Great Western Canal . 117, 118, 119 

Green, Jarnes Mercer 191 

Greene County 227 

Groover, W. W 228 

Gross, W. H 187, 204 

Ground Nuts and Ground Peas 220 

Guillan, Hannah 191 

H 

Habersham County 43, 49 to 52, 75, 76, 105 

Hall County 77 

Hall, Lyman 182 

Hand-Book of Georgia 211 

Haralson County 77 

Harris County 78 

Harris, Iverson L 167 

Hardaway, R H 226 

Hardeman, Thomas, Jr 208 

Hay 227, 231 

Haygood, A. G 187 

Heat, Distribution of 132 

Heat of the Earth *. 21, 22 

Health 11,56 

Head Rights 159 

Heard County 78 

Hearn Manual Labor School 193, 198 

Hebrews 205 

Hill, Edward Young 167 

Hillyer, Carlton 171 

Home Comfort 5, 15 

Homestead 155 

Hood, E. C 134, 139 

Hot Summers in the North, Cause of 132 

Horticultural Society, State 216 

Horticultural Products, Variety of 219 

Hogs . . 232 

Horses and Mules 229 

Hospitality of Georgians 13 

House of Representatives 154 

Houston County 101 

Houston Female College 190 

Howard, C. W 45, 201, 227 



248 INDEX. 

Human Age 20, 40, 42 

Human Wants 10, 14 

Humber, R. C 231 

Hunter, R. L , 56, 108 

I 

Immigrants, Advantages to, presented by Georgia 9, 16 

Immigrants, Suggestions to 15 

Improved Culture, Results of 225 to 228 

Indian Treaties 159 

Industries of Georgia ,. . . 6 

Indigo 220 

Institutions of the People 154 

Inspection of Fertilizers 207, 237 

Instruction 13 

Internal and External Relations of Georgia 114 

Introductory 1 

Irrigation 137 

Iron Furnaces in Georgia 29, 46 

Iron Ore 18 

Irish Potatoes 223, 227 

Isothermal Lines 131, 132 

Israelites 205 

J 

Jackson County 78, 79 

James, John H 194 

Janes, Thomas P 212, 227 

Jefferson County 79 

Jenkins, Charles J 167 

Jews 205 

Jones County 79, 100 

Jones, Joseph 87 

Johnson, S. K 171 

Johnston, Malcolm 208 

Judicial Department 155 

K 
King, John P 171, 172, 177 

L 

Labor Problem of the South 150, 152, 229, 233 

Land Policy of Georgia 158 

Land Titles Record of 158 

Latitudes and Longitudes 114, 115, 121 

Lavender, J. S 228 

La Grange Female College 190 

Law Schools... 185, 186 



INDEX. 249 

Laws of Georgia of Special Interest 156 to 158 

Leak, S. W 226, 227 

Lead 18 

Lee, Daniel 108 

Legislative Department of Georgia 154 

Lemons 225 

Levert Female College 190 

Lewis, D. W 207, 208 

Liens 158 

Life (Earliest) 23 

Lignite 24 

Lime as a Fertilizer 89 to 96, 237 

Limestone 36, 50, 87 

Lincoln County 79 

Little, George 216 

Locomotion 12 

Lodging 11 

Long, Patrick 227 

Losses of Georgia by the War 7, 218, 219 

Lotteries of Land in Georgia 160 to 165 

Lucerne.... 223, 227, 231 

Lunatic Asylum 193 

Lutheran Church 205 

Lumber and Lumber Trade 53, 54, 221 

Lumpkin County 79 

M 

Macon 135, 138 

Macon County 100 

Macon and Augusta Railroad 65, 171, 173 

Macon and Brunswick Railroad 63, 174 

Macon and Western Railroad 62, 171, 173 

McCall, G. R 198 

McDuffie County 80 

McRae, William 169 

Madden, J. F 226 

Magnesia as a Fertilizer 96 

Mammalian Age 42 

Manganese 18 

Manufactures 158, 233 to 236 

Map of Georgia, Geological In pocket at end of this volume. 

Marble 18, 35 

Marls in Georgia 87 to 101, 237 

Married Women, their Rights of Property 156, 157 

Martin Institute 190 

Marthasville 168 

Masonic Fraternity in Georgia 189 to 195 



250 INDEX. 

Mell, P. H., Jr 142 

Melons 225 

Meigs, Josiali 184 

Mercer, Jesse 186, 187, 197, 209 

Mercer High School 198 

Mercer University 186, 198 

Mercer, L. B 208 

Meteorological Observations and Records 130 to 142 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South 198 

Methodist (South) Institutions of Learning 199 

Methodist Episcopal Church, North 200 

Methodist (North) Institutions of Learning 200 

Methodist Episcopal Church of America, Colored 199 

Methodists, other Branches of. 200 

Methodist Orphans Homes 194, 195 

Metamorphism 26 

Mica Schist. 35 

Miller, Andrew J 167 

Miller County 80 

Milton County 80 

Mills in Georgia 234 

Milledgeville Railroad 171 

Mineral Wealth of Georgia 6 

Minerals, Rocks, Elements 26 

Minerals, Chemical Elements of 29, 30 

Minerals, Physical Characteristics 30, 32, 33 

Mineral Springs 86 

Mistakes as to the Southern Climate 131 

Molasses 220 

Monroe County. 80 

Moody, W 227 

Moraines 20 

Moravians 2 

Mountain Country, The 127, 128 

Mountain Systems 124, 125 

Mountains, Height of 124, 127 

Mountains, Latitude and Longitude of, Noted 115 

Mountains, Elevations of 59 

Mountains and Ridges, System of 59 to 61 

Mountains, View from several noted 17 

Mules, Horses and 229 

Murray County 81 

Muscogee County 52, 53, 81, 103, 104, 105 

N 

Natural Divisions of Georgia 3, 127 

Naval Stores. . 221 



INDEX. 251 

Negro, The 148 to 152 

Negroes, Means provided for their Education 152, 180, 181, 187, 188, 

193, 200 

Newman, J. S 216 

Newton County 81 

Newspapers in Georgia 217 

Northeastern Railroad 176 

North Georgia Agricultural College 185 

North Georgia Conference 199 

North and South Railroad 175 

Northern Summer, Heat of, Cause 132 

O 

Oats 14, 219, 221, 226, 230 

Odd Fellows, Order of 193 

Oglethorpe County 81 

Okefinokee Swamp 53 to 58, 60, 108 

Olives 225 

Oranges 225 

Organic Matter 97 

Organism, The State a Species of 4 

Origin of Soils 21 

Orme, W. P 173 

Orphans Homes 104, 105 

Oscillations and Elevations of the Earth s Crust 23, 24, 25 

P 

Parker, John J 226 

Paulding County 81 

Peats 101 to 104 

Peas, Field Peas, Peavine Hay 220, 222, 227, 230, 232 

Peaches 11, 224 

Pecans 225 

Pears .11, 223, 224 

Peck, John B 176 

Pear Trees, Duration of their Life 224 

Pendleton, E. M 141, 238 

Permian Period 38 

Penfield 186 

Pennington, C. M 177 

Periods, Ages, Epochs, etc 19, 20, 37 to 42 

Peter, H. J 216 

Peters, Richard 170, 232 

Peters, Richard, Jr 227 

People, The 144 

People, The Southern * 145 

People of Georgia, Characteristics of 13, 146, 147, 148 



252 INDEX. 

Plants (Woody) of Georgia 110 to 114 

Physical Features of Georgia, Outlines of 17 

Phosphoric Acid 96 

Pickens County 82 

Pinders 220 

Pierce, George F 199 

Pierce, Lovick 198 

Pike County 226, 228 

Pio Nouo College 187 

Polk County 82, 104 

Pomegranates 225 

Population of Georgia, Capacity for 7, 153 

Population, Centres of 153 

Potatoes, Sweet and Irish 223, 227, 228 

Poultry 220, 232 

Premium Crop on a Two-Horse Farm 228 

Presbyterian Church 200 

Products, Agricultural and Horticultural, Variety of 219 

Products of the Forest 221 

Productions, The. 218 

Productions, Results from Improved Culture 225 to 228 

Protestant Episcopal Church 202 

Public Schools 4, 156, 179 to 182 



Quaternary Age 39 

Quitman County 83, 100 

R 

Rabun County 83 

Race Characteristics 144 

Railroad History in Georgia 166 to 171 

Railroads in Georgia 165 to 177 

Railroad Elevations 62 to 67 

Railway Survey, U. S 66 

Railways, Miles of, in Georgia 4 

Rain, An Inch of 137 

Rainfall 130, 137 to 142 

Randolph County 83 

Raspberries H> 225 

Record of Conveyances 158 

Reed, John C, 8 

Reptilian Age 4 

Results of Improved Culture 225 to 228 

Rice. . . . , 219, 222, 226 

Richmond County , 83 



INDEX. 253 

Ridges and Slopes 60, 61, 116, 123, 125 

River Systems and River Basins 00, 126 

Rivers, their General Course 116 

Rocks, their Characteristics 26 

Rocks, Crystalline 34 

Rocks, Sedimentary 34 

Rocks, not Crystalline 36 

Rogers, William 172 

Rome Female College 190 

Rome Railroad 176 

Rye 14, 219 

S 

Sal/bergers 2 

Sandstone 36 

Savannah 134, 139, 146 

Savannah, Griffin, and North Alabama Railroad 171 

Savannah and Ogeechee Canal 178 

Scenery 128 

Schlatter, Charles L 175 

Screven, John 174 

Screven County 83, 89 

Scotch Highlanders 2 

Schools ,. 13 

School Commissioner of Georgia 155, 156 

School Laws of Georgia 13, 156, 179 to 182 

Scuppernong Grape 11, 124 

Seas, Cretaceous and Tertiary 19 

Security, Sense of. 12 

Senate of Georgia 154 

Sense of the Beautiful 13 

Selma, Rome, and Dalton Railroad ... 176 

Shale 36 

Shells 22 

Sheep Husbandry 56, 212, 213, 231 

Shore Lines (Ancient) 126 

Slate 18, 36 

Slopes and Ridges. 60, 61, 116, 123, 143 

Silver lg 

Signal Service (U. S.) Weather Reports 134, 139 

Silurian Age 37 

Situation of Georgia, Physical and Commercial 3, 114, 115 to 120 

Smith, James M 210, 215 

Soils, Analysis of 106, 107, 109, 211 

Soils, Origin of 21, 51 

Soils, Process of Exhaustion and Renovation 91, 92, 93, 236, 237 

Soils, Typical, of several Counties . 105 



254 INDEX. 

Soil Test of Fertilizers 211 

Soil of Georgia, Capacity of, under High Culture 225 to 228 

Soluble Silica 97 

Sorghum 222 

South Georgia Conference 199 

Southwestern Railroad 65, 171, 173 

Southern Masonic Female College 189 

Southern People 145 

Special Geology of Counties 42 to 58 

Springs, Mineral 86 

Spalding County 226, 227 

Stark, John 56 

State What is a State ? 4 

State Agricultural Society 206, 209, 215, 228 

State College of Agriculture 88, 185 

State Geologist 155, 207 

State (Rail) Road of Georgia 166 

State Horticultural Society 216 

Steamships of the Central Railroad 172 

Stephens, Alexander H 167 

Stephens, S. F. : 175 

Stewart County . . 84 

Stocks, Thomas 208 

Stock-raising 220, 229 to 232 

Strawberries 11, 225 

Suffrage 154 

Summer Heat in the North 132 

Sugar-cane, Syrup, Sugar, etc 56, 220, 221, 226 

Sunday Schools 198, 199, 202, 203, 206 

Sunday Schools, First ever Established 202 

Sweet Potatoes 223, 228 

T 

Tallulah Falls 49 

Taxation 154, 158 

Tea 220 

Textiles 219 

Tertiary Age : 39 

Tertiary and Cretaceous Seas 19 

Title to Land, Record thereof 158 

Temperature 130, 132 to 136 

Tlie Country 17 

The Negro 148 to 152 

The People 144 

Thomas County 223,225,226 

Thomson, J. Edgar 

Tobacco.. 22 



INDEX. 255 

Toccoa Falls 40 

Topography 122 to 129 

Trap-rocks or Dykes 34 

Transportation Lines through Georgia 119 

Tray Mountain 49 

Trees and Woody Plants of Georgia 48, 49, 52, 53, 59, 110 to 114 

Trenton Period 37 

Troup County 84, 106, 107 

Troup, George M 117, 118 

Tubers and Roots 220 

Tucker, H. H. 185 

Turnips 228 

Turpentine 221 

Twiggs County 84 

Tybee Island 134, 139 

Typical Counties (Geological) 105 

Typical Soils of tlie State 105 

U 

Universalist Church 205 

University of Georgia 13, 182 

Universities and Colleges 182 to 190 

U. S. Railway Survey Elevations 66 

V 

Valleys and Streams 116, 124 

Vegetables 10, 220 

Views from noted Mountains 17 

W 

Wadley, William M 172 

Walker County 84, 227 

Walnuts, English / 225 

Wants of Man, Means of .their Supply in Georgia 10, 14 

War, Losses of Georgia by the late 7, 218, 219 

Ware County ; 43, 53 to 58, 105 

Ware, E. A 188 

Warmth 14 

Warthen, T. C 226 

Washington County ; 85, 97, 226 

Washington, George 117 

Water-melons 225 

Water Powers of Georgia 52, 61, 68 to 85 

Water Powers of Muscogee County 52 

Water Sheds in Georgia 59 to 61, 125 

Waters, Mineral, in Georgia 86 

Wealth of Georgia . .4, 7 



256 INDEX. 

Wealth, Loss of, by the late War 7, 218 

Weather Reports 134 to 142 

Weather Records, Value of 143 

Wesleyau Female College 188 

Western and Atlantic Railroad 62, 166 

West Point Female College 190 

Wheat 219, 221, 226, 227 

White County 85 

White, H. C 87, 88 to 104 

Whitefield County 85 

Wife s Estate 156, 157 

Wight, S. B , 136,140, 141 

Williams, W. D 191 

Willis, L.B 227 

Wills 156 

Wine-making 56 

Winter Grazing Crops 14, 219, 230 

Winters, J. R 226 

Woody Plants and Trees of Georgia 48, 49, 52, 53, 59, 110 to 114 

Wool Factories 234 

Y 

Yancey, B. C 208 

Young Female College 190 



2044 16 



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